Genetic analysis of the heparan modification network in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 03/2011; 286(19):16824-31. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.227926
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Heparan sulfates (HS) are highly modified sugar polymers in multicellular organisms that function in cell adhesion and cellular responses to protein signaling. Functionally distinct, cell type-dependent HS modification patterns arise as the result of a conserved network of enzymes that catalyze deacetylations, sulfations, and epimerizations in specific positions of the sugar residues. To understand the genetic interactions of the enzymes during the HS modification process, we have measured the composition of HS purified from mutant strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. From these measurements we have developed a genetic network model of HS modification. We find the interactions to be highly recursive positive feed-forward and negative feedback loops. Our genetic analyses show that the HS C-5 epimerase hse-5, the HS 2-O-sulfotransferase hst-2, or the HS 6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6 inhibit N-sulfation. In contrast, hse-5 stimulates both 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation and, hst-2 and hst-6 inhibit 6-O- and 2-O-sulfation, respectively. The effects of hst-2 and hst-6 on N-sulfation, 6-O-sulfation, and 2-O-sulfation appear largely dependent on hse-5 function. This core of regulatory interactions is further modulated by 6-O-endosulfatase activity (sul-1). 47% of all 6-O-sulfates get removed from HS and this editing process is dependent on hst-2, thereby providing additional negative feedback between 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation. These findings suggest that the modification patterns are highly sensitive to the relative composition of the HS modification enzymes. Our comprehensive genetic analysis forms the basis of understanding the HS modification network in metazoans.

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Available from: Hannes E Bülow, Aug 11, 2015
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    • "sulfotransferases, an epimerase, and a sulfatase (Bernfield et al., 1999; Lee and Chien, 2004) (Figure 5A). The specific modifications made by each enzyme mediate specific roles in various aspects of C. elegans development and physiology , including axon guidance (Attreed et al., 2012; Bü low and Hobert, 2004; Townley and Bü low, 2011). In order to determine whether individual heparan sulfate sugar modifications are important for syndecan's function in axon regeneration, we examined loss-of-function mutants that lack individual modifying enzymes. "
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