Long-term follow-up of babies exposed to azathioprine in utero and via breastfeeding
ABSTRACT Recommendations on breastfeeding under thiopurines are inconsistent due to limited data.
To assess the risk of infections in offspring breastfed by mothers receiving azathioprine (AZA) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Babies, who were breastfed from their mothers treated either with or without AZA were included from a local pregnancy-registry. Women were asked by structured personal interview on general development, infections, hospitalisations and vaccinations of their offspring.
A group of 11 mothers taking AZA (median 150 mg/d) during pregnancy and lactation and another of 12 patients without using any immunosuppressive therapy breastfed 15 babies each for median 6 months and 8 months, respectively. Median age of children at time of interview was 3.3 and 4.7 years, respectively. All offspring showed age-appropriate mental and physical development. Infections were commonly seen childhood diseases. Similar rates were observed for most of the various infections between offspring with and without azathioprine exposure during breastfeeding. However, common cold more than two episodes/year and conjunctivitis were numerically more often reported in the group without AZA exposure. In an exploratory analysis no difference in the rate of hospitalisations was seen between exposed (0.06 hospitalisations/patient year) versus non-exposed children (0.12 hospitalisations/patient year, p=0.8)
Our study which reports the largest number of babies breastfed with exposure to AZA suggests that breastfeeding does not increase the risk of infections.
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ABSTRACT: 60 years after the first successful kidney transplantation in humans, transplant patients have decent survival rates owing to a broad spectrum of immunosuppressive medication available today. Not only transplant patients, but also patients with inflammatory autoimmune diseases or cancer benefit from these life-saving immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative medications. However, this success is gained with the disadvantage of neuropsychological disturbances and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and impaired quality of life after long-term treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. So far, surprisingly little is known about unwanted neuropsychological side effects of immunosuppressants and anti-proliferative drugs from the group of so called small molecule-drugs. This is partly due to the fact that it is difficult to disentangle whether and to what extent the observed neuropsychiatric disturbances are a direct result of the patient's medical history or of the immunosuppressive treatment. Thus, here we summarize experimental as well as clinical data of mammalian and human studies, with the focus on selected small-molecule drugs that are frequently employed in solid organ transplantation, autoimmune disorders or cancer therapy and their effects on neuropsychological functions, mood, and behavior. These data reveal the necessity to develop immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative drugs inducing fewer or no unwanted neuropsychological side effects, thereby increasing the quality of life in patients requiring long term immunosuppressive treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neuroimmunology and Synaptic Function'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Neuropharmacology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.12.008 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pregnancy in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is associated with several maternal and fetal complications. The development of clinical practice guidelines with the best available scientific evidence may help standardize the care of these patients. To provide recommendations regarding prenatal care, treatment, and a more effective monitoring of pregnancy in women with lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Nominal panels were formed for consensus, systematic search of information, development of clinical questions, processing and staging of recommendations, internal validation by peers and external validation of the final document. The quality criteria of the AGREE II instrument were followed. The panels answered 37 questions related to maternal and fetal care in lupus erythematosus, RA and APS, as well as for use of antirheumatic drugs during pregnancy and lactation. The recommendations were discussed and integrated into a final manuscript. Finally, the corresponding algorithms were developed. In this second part, the recommendations for pregnant women with RA, APS and the use of antirheumatic drugs during pregnancy and lactation are presented. We believe that the Mexican clinical practice guidelines for the management of pregnancy in women with RA and APS integrate the best available evidence for the treatment and follow-up of patients with these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.