Racial and socioeconomic disparities in reduction mammoplasty: an analysis of nationwide inpatient sample database.
ABSTRACT The American Society of Plastic Surgery recently recorded a decline in numbers of breast reductions, one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons. The purpose of this study is to characterize the reduction mammoplasty patient population which would further assist in planning the future workforce needs. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for 2007, a χ analysis of female in-patients treated with reduction mammoplasty for breast hypertrophy was performed to identify significant differences in race and payer mix. Of 8394 female in-patients with breast hypertrophy, 61% were treated with reduction mammoplasty. Black and Hispanic patients (P < 0.0001) and patients with private insurance (P < 0.0001) were more likely to undergo reduction mammoplasty. This study demonstrates racial and socioeconomic disparities in breast reduction in the United States in 2007. With the pending institution of universal healthcare, it is predicted that disparities revealed may worsen due to cost containment pressures.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Race- and insurance-based disparities exist in the utilization of high-volume hospitals for complex surgery. Retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1988 through 2005 was performed to examine hospital volume trends for eight procedures. Ordered logistic regression analyses were performed to determine temporal trends in the utilization of high-volume hospitals by minority and Medicaid-insured patients compared with white patients and those with private insurance or Medicare. Black patients are increasing their utilization of higher-volume hospitals, but not at a rate sufficient to overcome existing disparities relative to the utilization of such hospitals by white patients. Meanwhile, disparities in the utilization of higher-volume hospitals are increasing for Hispanics and patients who are primarily insured through Medicaid. Existing racial and insurance-based disparities in the utilization of high-volume surgical care will persist or become even more pronounced without active intervention from health care policymakers.The American surgeon 05/2010; 76(5):529-38. · 0.92 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: After accounting for socioeconomic factors and other demographic characteristics, racial/ethnic disparities in access to care were examined. Using nationally representative data on 34,403 individuals from the 2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), multiple logistic regression analyses for five outcome measures were conducted: self-reports of being unable to get medical care, dental care, or prescriptions in the past year; and having no doctor or dentist visits in the past year. The main independent variables were race/ethnicity, income, and insurance status. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to report difficulties in accessing medical care, dental care, and prescriptions as compared to whites. These disparities occurred primarily among the uninsured and Medicaid insured. More objective measures of utilization (ie, no doctor visit or dental visit during the past year) showed that minorities experienced less access than whites. Racial/ethnic disparities in access to care persist, and cannot be entirely explained by socioeconomic differences. In addition, the nature of these disparities depends on the socioeconomic position of racial/ethnic groups as well as the access measure used.Southern medical journal 06/2010; 103(6):509-16. · 1.12 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Women seeking consultation for the surgical relief of symptoms associated with breast hypertrophy have been the focus of many studies. In contrast, little is known about those women with breast hypertrophy who do not seek symptomatic relief. The purpose of this study was to describe the health burden of breast hypertrophy by using a set of validated questionnaires and to compare women with breast hypertrophy who seek surgical treatment with those who do not. In addition, this latter group was compared with a group of control women without breast hypertrophy. Women seeking consultation for surgery were recruited from 14 plastic-surgery practices. Control subjects were recruited by advertisements in primary-care offices and newspapers. Women were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire that included the European Quality of Life (EuroQol) questionnaire, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, and questions regarding breast-related symptoms, comorbidities, and bra size. Descriptive statistics were compiled for three groups of women: (1) hypertrophy patients seeking surgical care, (2) hypertrophy control subjects (those whose reported bra-cup size was a D or larger), and (3) normal control subjects (those whose reported bra-cup size was an A, B, or C). The multiple linear regression method was used to compare the health burdens across groups while adjusting for other variables. Two hundred ninety-one women seeking surgical care and 195 control subjects were enrolled in the study. The 184 control subjects with bra-cup information available were further separated into 88 hypertrophy control subjects and 96 normal control subjects. In the control group, bra-cup size was correlated with health-burden measures, whereas in the surgical candidates, it was not. When scores were compared across the three groups, significant differences were found in all health-burden measures. The surgical candidates scored more poorly on the EuroQol utility, McGill pain rating index, MBSRQ appearance evaluation, physical component scale of the SF-36, and on breast symptoms than did the two control groups. In addition, the hypertrophy control subjects scored more poorly than the normal control subjects. With multiple linear regression analysis incorporating important potential confounders, the poorer scores in the surgical candidates remained statistically significant. It was concluded that breast hypertrophy in those seeking surgical care and those not seeking surgery has a significant impact on women's quality of life as measured by validated and widely used self-report instruments including the EuroQol, MBSRQ, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the SF-36. Likewise, a new assessment instrument for breast-related symptoms also demonstrated greater symptomatology in women with breast hypertrophy.Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 12/2001; 108(6):1591-9. · 3.33 Impact Factor