Lipid-lowering treatment in hypercholesterolaemic patients: the CEPHEUS Pan-Asian survey.
ABSTRACT Treatment of hypercholesterolaemia in Asia is rarely evaluated on a large scale, and data on treatment outcome are scarce. The Pan-Asian CEPHEUS study aimed to assess low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment among patients on lipid-lowering therapy.
This survey was conducted in eight Asian countries. Hypercholesterolaemic patients aged ≥18 years who had been on lipid-lowering treatment for ≥3 months (stable medication for ≥6 weeks) were recruited, and lipid concentrations were measured. Demographic and other clinically relevant information were collected, and the cardiovascular risk of each patient was determined. Definitions and criteria set by the updated 2004 National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines were applied.
In this survey, 501 physicians enrolled 8064 patients, of whom 7281 were included in the final analysis. The mean age was 61.0 years, 44.4% were female, and 85.1% were on statin monotherapy. LDL-C goal attainment was reported in 49.1% of patients overall, including 51.2% of primary and 48.7% of secondary prevention patients, and 36.6% of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia. The LDL-C goal was attained in 75.4% of moderate risk, 55.4% of high risk, and only 34.9% of very high-risk patients. Goal attainment was directly related to age and inversely related to cardiovascular risk and baseline LDL-C.
A large proportion of Asian hypercholesterolaemic patients on lipid-lowering drugs are not at recommended LDL-C levels and remain at risk for cardiovascular disease. Given the proven efficacy of lipid-lowering drugs in the reduction of LDL-C, there is room for further optimization of treatments to maximize benefits and improve outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: British clinical guidelines recommend statins as first-line lipid-modifying treatment (LMT) for patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We undertook an observational study to assess total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in high-risk patients who were treated with atorvastatin monotherapy by UK general practitioners. Methods: This retrospective database study included patients with a prescription for atorvastatin monotherapy between November 30, 2008, and November 30, 2011, with the index date defined as the first atorvastatin prescription during this period. Eligible high-risk patients with evidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), or familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) were required to have ≥1 TC and LDL-C measurement between 3 and 12 months after the index date, and continuous enrollment 1 year before and 1 year after the index date. Cholesterol levels were assessed using the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines: TC <4.0 mmol/L or LDL-C <2.0 mmol/L. Results: Of 2,999 high-risk patients (60.2% men; mean [SD] age = 67.9 [10.6] years) meeting selection criteria, 23.9% 28.2%, 36.2%, and 11.6% received prescriptions for atorvastatin 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg, respectively (percents do not sum to 100 because of rounding). Across all doses, the mean (SD) follow-up TC was 4.08 (0.80) mmol/L and LDL-C, 2.08 (0.65) mmol/L. A large proportion of patients (88.8%) had TC <5.0 mmol/L. However, only 45.8% had TC < 4.0 mmol/L, and 46.5% had LDL-C <2.0 mmol/L. Although a larger proportion of patients with CHD/AVD + DM reached guideline-recommended lipid levels, only 63.7% of such patients had TC <4.0 or LDL-C <2.0 mmol/L, which are the current targets for this subgroup as recommended by NICE. Conclusions: Less than half of UK high-CVD-risk patients receiving atorvastatin monotherapy achieved guideline-recommended treatment targets for TC, and less than two-thirds of patients with CHD/AVD + DM had values below TC (4.0 mmol/L) or LDL-C (2.0 mmol/L). More effective lipid-lowering strategies may be warranted to optimize cholesterol lowering and target attainment in high-risk patients. Limitations of this study include its retrospective, observational nature.Current Medical Research and Opinion 02/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that the attainment of goals for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are globally suboptimal, but contemporary data are scarce. The CEntralized Pan-Asian survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolemia (CEPHEUS-PA) is the largest evaluation of pharmacological treatment for hypercholesterolemia in Asia. The study reported here analyzed the Taiwan cohort in CEPHEUS-PA to identify the determinants of successful treatment. The patients eligible for this study were adults (≥18 years old) with hypercholesterolemia and with at least two coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors who had been receiving lipid-lowering drugs for at least 3 months before enrollment, without adjustment for at least 6 weeks before enrollment. Demographic and clinical information and lipid concentrations were recorded. Cardiovascular risk levels and LDL-C targets were determined using the updated Adult Treatment Panel III. In this group of 999 Taiwanese patients, 50%, 25%, and 24% had LDL-C goals set at <70 mg/dL, <100 mg/dL, and <130 mg/dL, respectively. The overall attainment rate was 50%, with the lowest rate in patients set at the most stringent target (22%), followed by those whose therapeutic goals were <100 mg/dL (69%) and <130 mg/dL (87%). The success of LDL-C control was lower in patients with multiple risk factors other than CHD or its equivalents than in those without these multiple risk factors (37% vs. 53%, p < 0.001), and lower in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without (43% vs. 66%, p < 0.001). Baseline LDL-C and cardiovascular risk were inversely associated with goal attainment, whereas treatment with statins was directly associated with the achievement of LDL-C goals. Patients with diabetes (odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.84, p = 0.010) and with metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.15, 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.40, p < 0.001) were less likely to be treated with statins. This study showed that there is a discrepancy between the updated Adult Treatment Panel III recommendations for LDL-C control and the control attained by this group of Taiwanese patients. In particular, treatment with statins was largely underused in patients with diabetes and in those with metabolic syndrome. These findings highlight the need for more intensive treatment in high-risk patients and those with multiple risk factors, particularly patients with metabolic syndrome.Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 12/2013; · 0.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Guidelines emphasise the importance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals for cardiovascular risk reduction. Given the importance of association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) normal levels and cardiovascular risk, there is an additional need to further evaluate diverse dyslipidaemic populations. A retrospective longitudinal observational study of patients aged ≥ 35 years on lipid-modifying therapy (LMT) for ≥ 12 months was conducted from patient records pooled from five Asian countries (Malaysia, Korea, Hong Kong, Thailand and Philippines). The prevalence of lipid abnormalities and goal attainment was assessed 12 months before and after LMT initiation. Among 3256 patients (mean age - 58.6 years, 50.4% men), 65.4% were high-risk patients and 88% were on statin therapy. At baseline 94.7% of all patients had at least one abnormal lipid value elevated, LDL-C (86.2%) being the most prevalent. Non-smokers [OR (95% CI): 1.42 (1.08-1.87)], non-diabetics [2.35 (1.96-2.82)], non-cardiovascular disease patients [1.77 (1.42-2.21)] and those from Korea [2.56 (1.83-3.59)] were more likely to attain LDL-C goals. On the contrary, women [0.82 (0.68-0.98)], subjects with FRS > 20% [0.56 (0.41-0.77)] those from Malaysia [0.55 (0.39-0.77)] and the Philippines [0.18 (0.12-0.28)] were less likely to reach LDL-C goals. Fewer characteristics were independently associated with reaching normal levels of HDL-C and TG and attaining at least two normal lipid levels. While current LMT reduced the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, a third of patients still failed to achieve target/normal levels. We highlight country differences and the importance of improving therapy to attain multiple lipid goals/normal levels.International Journal of Clinical Practice 03/2014; · 2.43 Impact Factor