Antidepressants in Acute Bipolar Depression: An Inconclusive Meta-Analysis

Bipolar Disorders Program, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain. .
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.14). 03/2011; 72(3):415-6; author reply 416. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.10lr06638
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The treatment of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is complex and psychiatrists often have to change treatment strategies. However, available data do not provide information about the most frequent patterns of treatment strategies prescribed in clinical practice and clinical/socio-demographic factors of drugs prescription. Objective: The aims of this study were: (1) to identify specific patterns of life-time treatment strategies in a representative sample of bipolar patients; (2) to assess consistency with guidelines recommendations; and (3) to investigate clinical/socio-demographic of patients. Methods: Six-hundred and four BD I and II out-patients were enrolled in a naturalistic cohort study at the Barcelona Bipolar Disorders Program, in a cross-sectional analysis. A principal component analysis was applied to group psychotropic drugs into fewer underlying clusters which represent patterns of treatment strategies more frequently adopted in the life-time naturalistic treatment of BD. Results: Three main factors corresponding to three main prescription patterns were identified, which explained about 60% of cases, namely, Factor 1 (21.1% of common variance), defined the "antimanic stabilisation package" including treatments with antimanic mechanism of action in predominantly manic-psychotic BD I patients; Factor 2 (20.4%), "antidepressive stabilisation package" that grouped predominantly depressed patients, and Factor 3 (16.4%) defined the "anti-bipolar II package", including antidepressant monotherapy in BD II patients with depressive predominant polarity, melancholic features and higher rates of suicide behaviours. Conclusions: This study identified three patterns of lifetime treatment strategies in three specific and different groups of naturalistically treated bipolar patients.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2012.07.015 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Two main patterns of comorbidity have been described in bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: the first including preexisting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related disruptive behavior disorders and the second including anxiety disorders, namely, the association of co-occurring multiple anxiety disorders, usually predating the onset of bipolarity. This study was aimed at exploring whether ADHD and multiple anxiety disorders may exhibit different pathways to specific bipolar phenotypes. METHOD: We compared 49 youths (7 to 18 years) with bipolar disorder + ADHD without anxiety, 76 youths with bipolar disorder + multiple anxiety disorders without ADHD, and 52 youths with bipolar disorder without ADHD or multiple anxiety disorders who were referred to a third-level hospital and diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR in the period 2005-2011. Subjects were evaluated for current and lifetime Axis I psychiatric disorders by using a structured clinical interview (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version) and followed up for at least 6 months. RESULTS: Compared to both patients with bipolar disorder + multiple anxiety disorders and patients with bipolar disorder without ADHD and multiple anxiety disorders, patients with bipolar disorder + ADHD without anxiety were more frequently male, were younger, had an earlier onset of bipolar disorder, had a prevalent chronic course and irritable mood, were more likely to present with a bipolar disorder not otherwise specified diagnosis, had a greater clinical severity and functional impairment, had a manic/mixed index episode, had a higher risk of conduct disorder, and were more resistant to treatments, according to the CGI-Improvement scores (P < .0001). Patients with bipolar disorder + multiple anxiety disorders were similar to those with bipolar disorder without ADHD or multiple anxiety disorders, except for a higher rate of diagnosis of bipolar II disorder, more use of antidepressants, and less use of atypical antipsychotics. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of comorbid ADHD versus anxiety disorders is indicative of fundamental differences in the phenomenology of bipolar disorder in youth. While ADHD prior to bipolar disorder is associated with a specific bipolar phenotype, bipolar patients with multiple anxiety disorders are similar to "typical" bipolar patients.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 09/2012; 73(10). DOI:10.4088/JCP.11m07504 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effective treatment of depression in people with bipolar disorder remains a clinical challenge. The role of antidepressant medication in treating bipolar depression has been controversial. While early studies and meta-analyses supported a role for antidepressant medication, more recent, high quality randomized controlled trials in bipolar depression have generally not demonstrated efficacy for antidepressant medications. Although the risk of affective switch and long-term de-stabilization remains a concern when using antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder, the magnitude of this risk has been difficult to ascertain with confidence. Maintenance use of antidepressant medication has generally not demonstrated a favorable risk-benefit ratio. Future studies should explore the patient characteristics and response patterns that predict a more favorable response profile to antidepressants amongst patients with bipolar disorder so that the medications can be rationally used in those who are most likely to benefit.
    Current Psychiatry Reports 10/2012; 14(6). DOI:10.1007/s11920-012-0323-6 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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