IL-6 induced by Staphylococcus aureus infection prevents the induction of skin allograft acceptance in mice.

Department of Surgery Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 6.19). 03/2011; 11(5):936-46. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03476.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clinical correlations between bacterial infections and rejection suggest a hypothesis that innate immune stimulation by bacterial infections results in the production of inflammatory cytokine that facilitate bystander T-cell activation, increased alloreactivity and inhibition of tolerance induction. Previous studies demonstrated that IFNβ produced during an infection with a model bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, prevented the induction of transplantation tolerance in mice with anti-CD154 and donor-specific transfusion (DST) (1). We investigated the impact of two clinically relevant bacterial infections at the time of transplantation on the ability of anti-CD154 and DST to induce skin allograft acceptance in mice. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infection prevented skin allograft acceptance whereas maximally tolerated doses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection had no effect. SA induced an acute production of IL-6, which was necessary and sufficient for the prevention of skin allograft acceptance. Furthermore, a single pulse of methylprednisolone modulated IL-6 production during SA infection and facilitated skin allograft acceptance in SA-infected recipients. Taken together, our results suggest that bacterial infections elicit specific proinflammatory cytokines signatures that can serve as barriers to tolerance induction, and that inhibiting the production of or neutralizing these inflammatory cytokines can synergize with costimulatory blockade-based therapies to facilitate the development of transplantation tolerance.

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    Acta Dermato-Venereologica 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Much progress has been made toward understanding the mechanistic basis of transplantation tolerance in experimental models, which implicates clonal deletion of alloreactive T and B cells, induction of cell-intrinsic hyporesponsiveness, and dominant regulatory cells mediating infectious tolerance and linked suppression. Despite encouraging success in the laboratory, achieving tolerance in the clinic remains challenging, although the basis for these challenges is beginning to be understood. Heterologous memory alloreactive T cells generated by infections prior to transplantation have been shown to be a critical barrier to tolerance induction. Furthermore, infections at the time of transplantation and tolerance induction provide a pro-inflammatory milieu that alters the stability and function of regulatory T cells as well as the activation requirements and differentiation of effector T cells. Thus, infections can result in enhanced alloreactivity, resistance to tolerance induction, and destabilization of the established tolerance state. We speculate that these experimental findings have relevance to the clinic, where infections have been associated with allograft rejection and may be a causal event precipitating the loss of grafts after long periods of stable operational tolerance. Understanding the mechanisms by which infections prevent and destabilize tolerance can lead to therapies that promote stable life-long tolerance in transplant recipients.
    Immunological Reviews 03/2014; 258(1):80-101. · 12.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Solid organ transplantation is a vital therapy for end stage diseases. Decades of research have established that components of the adaptive immune system are critical for transplant rejection, but the role of the innate immune system in organ transplantation is just emerging. Accumulating evidence indicates that the innate immune system is activated at the time of organ implantation by the release of endogenous inflammatory triggers. This review discusses the nature of these triggers in organ transplantation and also potential mediators that may enhance inflammation resolution after organ implantation.
    Immunological Reviews 03/2014; 258(1):132-44. · 12.16 Impact Factor


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