IL-6 Induced by Staphylococcus aureus Infection Prevents the Induction of Skin Allograft Acceptance in Mice

Department of Surgery Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 6.19). 03/2011; 11(5):936-46. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03476.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clinical correlations between bacterial infections and rejection suggest a hypothesis that innate immune stimulation by bacterial infections results in the production of inflammatory cytokine that facilitate bystander T-cell activation, increased alloreactivity and inhibition of tolerance induction. Previous studies demonstrated that IFNβ produced during an infection with a model bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, prevented the induction of transplantation tolerance in mice with anti-CD154 and donor-specific transfusion (DST) (1). We investigated the impact of two clinically relevant bacterial infections at the time of transplantation on the ability of anti-CD154 and DST to induce skin allograft acceptance in mice. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infection prevented skin allograft acceptance whereas maximally tolerated doses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection had no effect. SA induced an acute production of IL-6, which was necessary and sufficient for the prevention of skin allograft acceptance. Furthermore, a single pulse of methylprednisolone modulated IL-6 production during SA infection and facilitated skin allograft acceptance in SA-infected recipients. Taken together, our results suggest that bacterial infections elicit specific proinflammatory cytokines signatures that can serve as barriers to tolerance induction, and that inhibiting the production of or neutralizing these inflammatory cytokines can synergize with costimulatory blockade-based therapies to facilitate the development of transplantation tolerance.

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