Effects of the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: A randomised controlled trial

The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 09/2008; 372:1174-83. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61242-8
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce major cardiovascular events, but are not tolerated by about 20% of patients. We therefore assessed whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan would be effective in patients intolerant to ACE inhibitors with cardiovascular disease or diabetes with end-organ damage. METHODS: After a 3-week run-in period, 5926 patients, many of whom were receiving concomitant proven therapies, were randomised to receive telmisartan 80 mg/day (n=2954) or placebo (n=2972) by use of a central automated randomisation system. Randomisation was stratified by hospital. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalisation for heart failure. Analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with, number NCT00153101. FINDINGS: The median duration of follow-up was 56 (IQR 51-64) months. All randomised patients were included in the efficacy analyses. Mean blood pressure was lower in the telmisartan group than in the placebo group throughout the study (weighted mean difference between groups 4.0/2.2 [SD 19.6/12.0] mm Hg). 465 (15.7%) patients experienced the primary outcome in the telmisartan group compared with 504 (17.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.81-1.05, p=0.216). One of the secondary outcomes-a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke-occurred in 384 (13.0%) patients on telmisartan compared with 440 (14.8%) on placebo (0.87, 0.76-1.00, p=0.048 unadjusted; p=0.068 after adjustment for multiplicity of comparisons and overlap with primary outcome). 894 (30.3%) patients receiving telmisartan were hospitalised for a cardiovascular reason, compared with 980 (33.0%) on placebo (relative risk 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-0.99; p=0.025). Fewer patients permanently discontinued study medication in the telmisartan group than in the placebo group (639 [21.6%] vs 705 [23.8%]; p=0.055); the most common reason for permanent discontinuation was hypotensive symptoms (29 [0.98%] in the telmisartan group vs 16 [0.54%] in the placebo group). INTERPRETATION: Telmisartan was well tolerated in patients unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors. Although the drug had no significant effect on the primary outcome of this study, which included hospitalisations for heart failure, it modestly reduced the risk of the composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim.

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Available from: Helmut E Schumacher, Jul 28, 2015
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    • "The Survival of Myocardial Infarction Long-Term Evaluation (SMILE) study found a benefit, whereas the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation trial (VALUE) found no difference and the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) showed no difference [46] [55] [56]. The Telmisartan Randomised Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND) showed the benefit of telmisartan [36]. The Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) showed a benefit in diabetics [41]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in high-risk surgical patients. However, their effect in spinal surgery has not been explored. Our objective was to determine the effect of RAS inhibitors on postoperative troponin elevation in spinal fusions, and to examine their correlation with hospital stay. We retrospectively analyzed 208 consecutive patients receiving spinal fusions ⩾5 levels between 2007-2010 with a mean follow-up of 1.7years. Inclusion criteria were age ⩾18years, elective fusions for kyphoscoliosis, and semi-elective fusions for tumor or infection. Exclusion criteria were trauma and follow-up <1year. Descriptives, frequencies, and logistic and linear regression were used to analyze troponin elevation (⩾0.04ng/mL), peak troponin level, and hospital stay. The results featured 208 patients with a mean body mass index (BMI) 28.5kg/m(2) who underwent 345 spinal fusions. ACEI/ARB were withheld the day prior to surgery in 121 patients with 11 patients noteworthy for intra-operative electrocardiogram changes, 126 patients with troponin elevation, and 14 MI identified prior to discharge. Multivariate logistic regression identified BMI (p=0.04), estimated blood loss (p=0.015), and preoperative ACEI/ARB (p=0.015, odds ratio=2.7) as significant independent predictors for postoperative troponin elevation. Multivariate linear regression showed preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (p=0.002), unplanned return to operating room (p=0.007), pneumonia prior to hospital discharge (p<0.01), and preoperative ACEI/ARB to be associated with hospital stay. In patients with spinal fusions ⩾5 levels, ACEI/ARB are independently associated with postoperative troponin elevation and increased hospital stay.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 11/2013; 21(7). DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2013.10.019 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    • "p < 0.001) [Yusuf et al. 2008a]. The prevalence of LV hypertrophy at 2 and 5 years after randomization was seen to fall in patients receiving telmisartan over time [Verdecchia et al. 2011; Yusuf et al. 2008a]. "
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    ABSTRACT: For patients with hypertension, effective control of blood pressure (BP) reduces cardiovascular (CV), and renal risk. Antihypertensive agents that offer benefits that extend beyond those associated with BP reduction alone, to include tissue protective effects and effects on the vasculature, may be of benefit for many patients with increased CV risk due to comorbidities or prior history of CV events. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers [angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)] are guideline-recognized, highly effective antihypertensive agents that exert their BP-lowering action through different mechanisms at different levels of the RAS. Large-scale clinical studies suggest that small, between-treatment differences in BP lowering do not account for observed outcome differences between RAS blockers and other antihypertensive agents. Analysis of data from seminal clinical studies and meta-analyses identify that, controlling for effects on BP control, RAS blockers may be more effective than calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in reducing risk of myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure; ARBs may be more effective than either ACEIs or β blockers in stroke prevention; CCBs may be more effective than RAS blockers in stroke prevention; and ARBs may be more effective than β blockers in reducing left ventricular hypertrophy. This review considers the rationale and evidence for benefits of RAS blockade beyond BP lowering, and highlights the differences between ARBs and ACEIs, and between agents within these drug classes.
    Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease 04/2012; 6(2):81-91. DOI:10.1177/1753944712444866 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    • "erectile function (Bohm et al., 2007; Yusuf et al., 2008a,b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Erectile dysfunction correlates with cardiovascular disease and its common risk factors due to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Positive effects on endothelial and erectile function have been described for substances inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-system. Here, we investigated in an atherosclerosis model, whether telmisartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) and ramipril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) are equivalent or the combination of both is superior in improving endothelial function in the aorta and the corpus cavernosum and in reducing atherosclerosis. Wild-type (WT, C57/B6) and apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE(-/-) ) mice were treated with a cholesterol-rich diet for 8 weeks. ApoE(-/-) mice were supplemented with either telmisartan (20 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) ), ramipril (2.5 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) ) or the combination thereof. Systolic blood pressure significantly decreased in treatment groups (P < 0.001), with significantly smaller reduction under ramipril monotherapy (P < 0.05). Endothelial function (assessed by pharmacological stimulation of aortic rings and corpus cavernosum in organ bath chambers) was impaired in ApoE(-/-) mice compared to WT animals, which was improved by all three treatments to a comparable extent (P < 0.05). Atherosclerotic lesion size in the ascending aorta and aortic sinus (P < 0.001), the amount of lipid peroxides in cavernosal and aortic tissue (P < 0.05) and free radical load (dihydroethidium-stain) (P < 0.05) were enhanced in untreated ApoE(-/-) mice in comparison to WT animals and were significantly reduced by either treatment. In penile tissue, expression of eNOS could be restored by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. Telmisartan and ramipril significantly improved endothelial function of aortic and cavernosal tissues in ApoE(-/-) via reduction of oxidative stress. Combination of both agents does not enhance beneficial effects significantly.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2011; 163(4):804-14. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01267.x · 4.99 Impact Factor
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