Myocardial bridging: depiction rate and morphology at CT coronary angiography - comparison with conventional coronary angiography
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To prospectively assess the depiction rate and morphologic features of myocardial bridging (MB) of coronary arteries with 64-section computed tomographic (CT) coronary angiography in comparison to conventional coronary angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were simultaneously enrolled in a prospective study comparing CT and conventional coronary angiography, for which ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. One hundred patients (38 women, 62 men; mean age, 63.8 years +/- 11.6 [standard deviation]) underwent 64-section CT and conventional coronary angiography. Fifty additional patients (19 women, 31 men; mean age, 59.2 years +/- 13.2) who underwent CT only were also included. CT images were analyzed for the direct signs length, depth, and degree of systolic compression, while conventional angiograms were analyzed for the indirect signs step down-step up phenomenon, milking effect, and systolic compression of the tunneled segment. Statistical analysis was performed with Pearson correlation analysis, the Wilcoxon two-sample test, and Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: MB was detected with CT in 26 (26%) of 100 patients and with conventional angiography in 12 patients (12%). Mean tunneled segment length and depth at CT (n = 150) were 24.3 mm +/- 10.0 and 2.6 mm +/- 0.8, respectively. Systolic compression in the 12 patients was 31.3% +/- 11.0 at CT and 28.2% +/- 10.5 at conventional angiography (r = 0.72, P < .001). With CT, a significant correlation was not found between systolic compression and length (r = 0.16, P = .25, n = 150) but was found with depth (r = 0.65, P < .01, n = 150) of the tunneled segment. In 14 patients in whom MB was found at CT but not at conventional angiography, length, depth, and systolic compression were significantly lower than in patients in whom both modalities depicted the anomaly (P < .001, P < .01, and P < .001, respectively). CONCLUSION: The depiction rate of MB is greater with 64-section CT coronary angiography than with conventional coronary angiography. The degree of systolic compression of MB significantly correlates with tunneled segment depth but not length.
Article: Triple rule-out CT in the emergency department: protocols and spectrum of imaging findings.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Triage decisions in patients suffering from acute chest pain remain a challenge. The patient's history, initial cardiac enzyme levels, or initial electrocardiograms (ECG) often do not allow selecting the patients in whom further tests are needed. Numerous vascular and non-vascular chest problems, such as pulmonary embolism (PE), aortic dissection, or acute coronary syndrome, as well as pulmonary, pleural, or osseous lesions, must be taken into account. Nowadays, contrast-enhanced multi-detector-row computed tomography (CT) has replaced previous invasive diagnostic procedures and currently represents the imaging modality of choice when the clinical suspicion of PE or acute aortic syndrome is raised. At the same time, CT is capable of detecting a multitude of non-vascular causes of acute chest pain, such as pneumonia, pericarditis, or fractures. Recent technical advances in CT technology have also shown great advantages for non-invasive imaging of the coronary arteries. In patients with acute chest pain, the optimization of triage decisions and cost-effectiveness using cardiac CT in the emergency department have been repetitively demonstrated. Triple rule-out CT denominates an ECG-gated protocol that allows for the depiction of the pulmonary arteries, thoracic aorta, and coronary arteries within a single examination. This can be accomplished through the use of a dedicated contrast media administration regimen resulting in a simultaneous attenuation of the three vessel territories. This review is intended to demonstrate CT parameters and contrast media administration protocols for performing a triple rule-out CT and discusses radiation dose issues pertinent to the protocol. Typical life-threatening and non-life-threatening diseases causing acute chest pain are illustrated.European Radiology 12/2008; 19(4):789-99. · 3.22 Impact Factor
Article: Myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending coronary artery: depiction rate and morphologic features by dual-source CT coronary angiography.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the depiction rate and morphologic features of myocardial bridging (MB) of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) using dual-source CT (DSCT). CT scans from a total of 1,353 patients who underwent DSCT were reviewed retrospectively for LAD-MB. Seventy-eight patients were excluded due to poor image quality or poor enhancement of the coronary artery. The length and depth of the MB were analyzed and classified as superficial or deep with respect to the depth (<or= 1 or > 1 mm) of the LAD tunneled segment. Superficial MB was subdivided into complete or incomplete types according to full or partial encasement of the myocardium. Of the 1,275 patients included in this study, 557 cases of MB were found from 536 patients (42%). Superficial MB was observed in 368 of 557 (66%) cases, and deep MB was seen in 189 of 557 (34%) cases. Superficial MB showed 2 types: complete (128 of 368, 35%) and incomplete (240 of 368, 65%). The mean length of a tunneled segment for superficial MB was 16.4 +/- 8.6 mm. The mean length and depth of a tunneled segment for deep MB were 27.6 +/- 12.8 mm and 3.0 +/- 1.4 mm, respectively. The incidence of atherosclerotic plaques in a 2-cm-long segment proximal to MB was 16%. The depiction rate of LAD-MB using DSCT in a large series of patients was 42%, with two-thirds of MB segments being the superficial type.Korean journal of radiology: official journal of the Korean Radiological Society 11(5):514-21. · 1.32 Impact Factor