Electrogenic Kinetics of a Mammalian Intestinal Type IIb Na+/Pi Cotransporter
ABSTRACT The kinetics of a type IIb Na(+)-coupled inorganic phosphate (Pi) cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) cloned from mouse small intestine were studied using the two-electrode voltage clamp applied to Xenopus oocytes. In the steady state, mouse NaPi-IIb showed a curvilinear I-V relationship, with rate-limiting behavior only for depolarizing potentials. The Pi dose dependence was Michaelian, with an apparent affinity constant for Pi (Km(pi)) of 10 +/- 1 microM: at -60 mV. Unlike for rat NaPi-IIa, (Km(pi)) increased with membrane hyperpolarization, as reported for human NaPi-IIa, flounder NaPi-IIb and zebrafish NaPi-IIb2. The apparent affinity constant for Na(+) (Km(na)) was 23 +/- 1 mM: at -60 mV, and the Na(+) activation was cooperative with a Hill coefficient of approximately 2. Pre-steady-state currents were documented in the absence of Pi and showed a strong dependence on external Na(+). The hyperpolarizing shift of the charge distribution midpoint potential was 65 mV/log[Na]. Approximately half the moveable charge was attributable to the empty carrier. A comparison of the voltage dependence of steady-state Pi-induced current and pre-steady-state charge movement indicated that for -120 mV <or= V <or= 0 mV the voltage dependence of the empty carrier was the main determinant of the curvilinear steady-state cotransport characteristic. External protons partially inhibited NaPi-IIb steady-state activity, independent of the titration of mono- and divalent Pi, and immobilized pre-steady-state charge movements associated with the first Na(+) binding step.
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ABSTRACT: The recent five years were the most prolific in scientific publications related to one of the re-emerging theme of human physiology, namely phosphate homeostasis. Classically, the phosphate absorption and excretion were thought to be mediated only by the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/vitamin D endocrine axis. Presently, apart from this traditional well-known control and feedback-loop, newly uncovered factors intervene, fine tuning the complex physiological process of renal phosphate handling and bone mineralization. The discovery of phosphatonins and Klotho gene provided new insights into the pathogenesis of several hypophosphatemic or hyperphosphatemic diseases, such as tumor induced osteomalacia, X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, autosomal recessive hypophosphatemia and tumoral calcinosis. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP-4), fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF-7) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) have been shown to be major phosphaturic factors. Whether and in which manner these hormones participate to the developing of secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone remodeling, and renal fibrogenesis needs to be clarified in the future. We review the current literature describing the role and mode of action of this new hormone class.Maedica A Journal of Clinical Medicine. 01/2008; 3.
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ABSTRACT: A variety of factors regulate the efficiency of phosphate absorption in the intestine and phosphate reabsorption in kidney. Apart from the well-known regulators of phosphate homeostasis, namely parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the vitamin D-endocrine system, a number of peptides collectively known as the "phosphatonins" have been recently identified as a result of the study of various diseases associated with hypophosphatemia. These factors, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP-4), fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF-7) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of various hypophosphatemic and hyperphosphatemic disorders, such as oncogenic osteomalacia, X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, autosomal recessive hypophosphatemia and tumoral calcinosis. Whether these factors are true hormones, in the sense that they are regulated by the intake of dietary phosphorus and the needs of the organism for higher or lower amounts of phosphorus, remains to be firmly established in humans. Additionally, new information demonstrates that the intestine "senses" luminal concentrations of phosphate and regulates the excretion of phosphate in the kidney by elaborating novel factors that alter renal phosphate reabsorption.Pediatric Nephrology 09/2008; 23(8):1203-10. · 2.52 Impact Factor