Patatin-related phospholipase pPLAIIIβ-induced changes in lipid metabolism alter cellulose content and cell elongation in Arabidopsis

Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, USA.
The Plant Cell (Impact Factor: 9.34). 03/2011; 23(3):1107-23. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.110.081240
Source: PubMed


The release of fatty acids from membrane lipids has been implicated in various plant processes, and the patatin-related phospholipases (pPLAs) constitute a major enzyme family that catalyzes fatty acid release. The Arabidopsis thaliana pPLA family has 10 members that are classified into three groups. Group 3 pPLAIII has four members but lacks the canonical lipase/esterase consensus catalytic sequences, and their enzymatic activity and cellular functions have not been delineated. Here, we show that pPLAIIIβ hydrolyzes phospholipids and galactolipids and additionally has acyl-CoA thioesterase activity. Alterations of pPLAIIIβ result in changes in lipid levels and composition. pPLAIIIβ-KO plants have longer leaves, petioles, hypocotyls, primary roots, and root hairs than wild-type plants, whereas pPLAIIIβ-OE plants exhibit the opposite phenotype. In addition, pPLAIIIβ-OE plants have significantly lower cellulose content and mechanical strength than wild-type plants. Root growth of pPLAIIIβ-KO plants is less sensitive to treatment with free fatty acids, the enzymatic products of pPLAIIIβ, than wild-type plants; root growth of pPLAIIIβ-OE plants is more sensitive. These data suggest that alteration of pPLAIIIβ expression and the resulting lipid changes alter cellulose content and cell elongation in Arabidopsis.

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    • "Thus, overaccumulation of free FAs is expected to be detrimental to tissues. For example, exogenous and endogenous FAs are known to inhibit coleoptile elongation of oat (Avena fatua; Ando and Tsukamotoa, 1981; Ohkawa and Nishikawa, 1987), longitudinal cell growth of Arabidopsis (Li et al., 2011), axillary bud growth of tobacco (Tso, 1964), seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa; Tsuzuki et al., 1987), and germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), oat, and mustard (Sinapsis alba; Le Poidevin, 1965; Berrie, 1979; Stewart and Berrie, 1979; Metzger and Sebesta, 1982). Furthermore, the accumulation of unsaturated FAs has been linked to cell death. "

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    • "com) as previously described (Shen et al., 2010). In addition to the primers for LPCAT2, pPLAIIIc, pPLAIIIb and PDAT1, which have been described previously (Li et al., 2011, 2013; Hern andez et al., 2012), the remaining primers (Table S2) were designed using Primer Express 3.0 software (http://www.lifetechnologies. com) to generate a product of 80–110 bp with a melting temperature of 60°C. "
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    • "RNA was converted to cDNA with RevertAid TM H Minus First Strand cDNA Synthesis kit (Fermentas, Vilnius, Lithuania). Primers were selected from previous works (Li et al. 2011; Effendi et al. 2011; see primer list). Relative expression calculation and statistical analysis were carried out with REST 2009 software (Livak & Schmittgen 2001; Pfaffl et al. 2002). "
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