Patatin-related phospholipase pPLAIIIβ-induced changes in lipid metabolism alter cellulose content and cell elongation in Arabidopsis.

Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, USA.
The Plant Cell (Impact Factor: 9.58). 03/2011; 23(3):1107-23. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.110.081240
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The release of fatty acids from membrane lipids has been implicated in various plant processes, and the patatin-related phospholipases (pPLAs) constitute a major enzyme family that catalyzes fatty acid release. The Arabidopsis thaliana pPLA family has 10 members that are classified into three groups. Group 3 pPLAIII has four members but lacks the canonical lipase/esterase consensus catalytic sequences, and their enzymatic activity and cellular functions have not been delineated. Here, we show that pPLAIIIβ hydrolyzes phospholipids and galactolipids and additionally has acyl-CoA thioesterase activity. Alterations of pPLAIIIβ result in changes in lipid levels and composition. pPLAIIIβ-KO plants have longer leaves, petioles, hypocotyls, primary roots, and root hairs than wild-type plants, whereas pPLAIIIβ-OE plants exhibit the opposite phenotype. In addition, pPLAIIIβ-OE plants have significantly lower cellulose content and mechanical strength than wild-type plants. Root growth of pPLAIIIβ-KO plants is less sensitive to treatment with free fatty acids, the enzymatic products of pPLAIIIβ, than wild-type plants; root growth of pPLAIIIβ-OE plants is more sensitive. These data suggest that alteration of pPLAIIIβ expression and the resulting lipid changes alter cellulose content and cell elongation in Arabidopsis.

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