Prostate Cancer and Ambient Pesticide Exposure in Agriculturally Intensive Areas in California

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9175, USA.
American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 03/2011; 173(11):1280-8. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwr003
Source: PubMed


In a population-based case-control study in California's intensely agricultural Central Valley (2005-2006), the authors investigated relations between environmental pesticide/fungicide exposure and prostate cancer. Cases (n = 173) were obtained from a population-based cancer registry, and controls (n = 162) were obtained from Medicare listings and tax assessor mailings. Past ambient exposures to pesticides/fungicides were derived from residential history and independently recorded pesticide and land-use data, using a novel geographic information systems approach. In comparison with unexposed persons, increased risks of prostate cancer were observed among persons exposed to compounds which may have prostate-specific biologic effects (methyl bromide (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.59) and a group of organochlorines (odds ratio = 1.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.63)) but not among those exposed to other compounds that were included as controls (simazine, maneb, and paraquat dichloride). The authors assessed the possibility of selection bias due to less-than-100% enrollment of eligible cases and controls (a critical methodological concern in studies of this kind) and determined that there was little evidence of bias affecting the estimated effect size. This study provides evidence of an association between prostate cancer and ambient pesticide exposures in and around homes in intensely agricultural areas. The associations appear specific to compounds with a plausible biologic role in prostate carcinogenesis.

8 Reads
  • Source
    • "Although epidemiological and toxicological studies provide important evidence for the role of environmental exposure in initiation or progression of degenerative diseases and cancer [1], [2], [3], [4], there is still a challenge to correlate exposure with disease prevalence. In fact, objectively verifiable, individual exposure data (and possible confounder levels) appear to be a major problem allowing to draw a link between the environmental exposure and the cause of disease. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticides. Exposure evaluation was based on human biomonitoring analysis; as biomarker of exposure parent halo-methanes, -ethanes and their metabolites, as well as the hemoglobin-adducts methyl valine and hydroxyl ethyl valine in blood were used, complemented by expert evaluation of exposure and clinical intoxication symptoms as well as a questionnaire. Assessment showed exposures to halo alkanes in the concentration range being higher than non-cancer reference doses (RfD) but (mostly) lower than the occupational exposure limits. We quantified circulating DNA in serum from 86 individuals with confirmed exposure to off-gassing halo-alkane pesticides (in storage facilities or in home environment) and 30 non-exposed controls, and found that exposure was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (in size of 79 bp, mtDNA-79, p = 0.0001). The decreased integrity of mtDNA (mtDNA-230/mtDNA-79) in exposed individuals implicates apoptotic processes (p = 0.015). The relative amounts of mtDNA-79 in serum were positively associated with the lag-time after intoxication to these chemicals (r = 0.99, p<0.0001). Several months of post-exposure the specificity of this biomarker increased from 30% to 97% in patients with intoxication symptoms. Our findings indicate that mitochondrial DNA has a potential to serve as a biomarker recognizing vulnerable risk groups after exposure to toxic/carcinogenic chemicals.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64413. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064413 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Residential exposure to pesticides has been linked to several adverse health outcomes, including adult cancers, such as non- Hodgkin lymphoma (Colt et al. 2006; Ward et al. 2009) and prostate cancer (Cockburn et al. 2011); childhood cancers, such as non- Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, and brain cancer (Infante-Rivard and Weichenthal 2007; Metayer and Buffler 2008; Van Maele- Fabry et al. 2011); and neurodevelopmental deficits (Bouchard et al. 2011; Engel et al. 2011; Rauh et al. 2011; Rosas and Eskenazi 2008). In epidemiologic studies of cancer, self-reported pesticide use is typically used to estimate residential pesticide exposure because of its low cost and participant burden (Ritz and Rull 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Residential pesticide exposure has been linked to adverse health outcomes in adults and children. High-quality exposure estimates are critical for confirming these associations. Past epidemiologic studies have used one measurement of pesticide concentrations in carpet dust to characterize an individual’s average long-term exposure. If concentrations vary over time, this approach could substantially misclassify exposure and attenuate risk estimates. Objectives: We assessed the repeatability of pesticide concentrations in carpet dust samples and the potential attenuation bias in epidemiologic studies relying on one sample. Methods: We collected repeated carpet dust samples (median = 3; range, 1–7) from 21 homes in Fresno County, California, during 2003–2005. Dust was analyzed for 13 pesticides using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used mixed-effects models to estimate between- and within-home variance. For each pesticide, we computed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the estimated attenuation of regression coefficients in a hypothetical case–control study collecting a single dust sample. Results: The median ICC was 0.73 (range, 0.37–0.95), demonstrating higher between-home than within-home variability for most pesticides. The expected magnitude of attenuation bias associated with using a single dust sample was estimated to be ≤ 30% for 7 of the 13 compounds evaluated. Conclusions: For several pesticides studied, use of one dust sample to represent an exposure period of approximately 2 years would not be expected to substantially attenuate odds ratios. Further study is needed to determine if our findings hold for longer exposure periods and for other pesticides.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 05/2013; 121(5). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1205811 · 7.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "However, the use of such adulticides is inevitably indiscriminate and may harm other nontarget species of insect whose populations would otherwise have acted as predators on mosquitoes (Milam et al. 2000, Boyce et al. 2007, Oberhauser et al. 2009). As more research on the long-term effects of releasing mixtures of synthetic pesticides into our environment is conducted (Cockburn et al. 2011), and their use becomes further restricted (information on Canadian registered pesticides at .php), there is a pressing need to find suitable alternatives to control these outbreaks of adult nuisance mosquitoes (Kline 2002, Relyea 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we explore the potential of a commercially available mechanical mosquito control device, the Liberty Plus Mosquito Magnet (hereafter referred to as Mosquito Magnet), to reduce the abundance of adult nuisance mosquito populations in public recreational areas. Mosquitoes were trapped on 2 replicate sites close to a campground at Brae Island Regional Park near Fort Langley, British Columbia, Canada. Each site comprised a treatment (Mosquito Magnets used) and control subsection (Mosquito Magnets not used). Mosquito numbers were assessed before and after the treatment period in both subsections at each site with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) black light traps. Although nearly 200,000 mosquitoes from 14 different species were collected over 366 trap-nights from May 31 to July 31, 2008, the majority of those identified were Aedes sticticus (68%) and Ae. vexans (22%)-2 of the most notorious nuisance mosquito species in British Columbia. The number of mosquitoes captured by CDC black light traps increased overall during the study period due to natural seasonal variation. Nevertheless, a significant treatment effect (P = 0.0389) was associated with an average decrease of about 32% in the average number of adult mosquitoes collected per day. These results strongly suggest that Mosquito Magnets can reduce the abundance of nuisance mosquitoes, potentially reducing the biting pressure on the public, and providing another tool in mosquito control operations.
    Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 12/2012; 28(4):292-300. DOI:10.2987/12-6241R.1 · 0.95 Impact Factor
Show more

Similar Publications


8 Reads
Available from