alpha-Mangostin Induces Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells through Downregulation of ERK/JNK and Akt Signaling Pathway
ABSTRACT Chondrosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor that is resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. α-Mangostin, a component of Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a xanthone derivative shown to have antioxidant and antitumor properties. This study is the first to investigate anticancer effects of α-mangostin in the human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353. We showed that α-mangostin inhibited cell proliferation of SW1353 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner by using the trypan blue exclusion method. Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining and nucleosomal DNA-gel electrophoresis revealed that α-mangostin could induce nuclear condensation and fragmentation, typically seen in apoptosis. Flow cytometry using Annexin V/PI double staining assessed apoptosis, necrosis and viability. α-Mangostin activated caspase-3, -8, -9 expression, decreased Bcl-2 and increased Bax. This promotes mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. In addition, total and phosphorylated ERK and JNK were downregulated in α-mangostin-treated SW1353 cells but no changes in p38. α-Mangostin also decreased phosphorylated Akt without altering total Akt. These results suggest that α-mangostin inhinbited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis through downregulation of ERK, JNK and Akt signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma SW1353 cells.
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ABSTRACT: Eleven known prenyl xanthones, isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, were tested for their ability to inhibit the phosphorylation of kinase domain receptor (KDR) tyrosine kinase. α-Mangostin was found to inhibit phosphorylation of KDR. α-Mangostin also showed to inhibit phosphorylation of the Y1175 residue of KDR (10 μM). This is the first report that α-mangostin inhibited the phosphorylation of KDR tyrosine kinase and also the Y1175 residue of KDR. α-Mangostin also showed inhibitory effects on proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) (IC(50) 1.2 μM) and human umbilical artery endothelial cells (IC(50) 2.4 μM), as well as the migration (IC(50) 0.034 μM) and tubule formation (at the concentrations of 0.6 and 1.2 μM) of HUVECs. These results suggest that the inhibition of the phosphorylation of KDR tyrosine kinase is concerned in the anti-angiogenic activity of α-mangostin.Journal of Natural Medicines 03/2012; 67(1). DOI:10.1007/s11418-012-0645-z · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: α-Mangostin, isolated from the hulls of Garcinia mangostana L., was found to have in vitro cytotoxicity against 3T3-L1 cells as well as inhibiting fatty acid synthase (FAS, EC 18.104.22.168). Our studies showed that the cytotoxicity of α-mangostin with IC(50) value of 20 µM was incomplicated in apoptotic events including increase of cell membrane permeability, nuclear chromatin condensation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss. This cytotoxicity was accompanied by the reduction of FAS activity in cells and could be rescued by 50 µM or 100 µM exogenous palmitic acids, which suggested that the apoptosis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced by α-mangostin was via inhibition of FAS. Futhermore, α-mangostin could suppress intracellular lipid accumulation in the differentiating adipocytes and stimulated lipolysis in mature adipocytes, which was also related to its inhibition of FAS. In addition, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of α-mangostin than mature adipocytes. Further studies showed that α-mangostin inhibited FAS probably by stronger action on the ketoacyl synthase domain and weaker action on the acetyl/malonyl transferase domain. These findings suggested that α-mangostin might be useful for preventing or treating obesity.PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33376. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033376 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to explore the detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) around xanthone scaffold bearing hydroxyl and prenyl moieties, twenty-nine natural and non-natural hydroxylated and prenylated xanthones have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anti-proliferative activities against five human cancer cell lines, including HepG2 (hepatocelluar carcinoma), HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma), BGC823 (gastric carcinoma) and MDAMB- 231 (breast carcinoma). The SAR analysis revealed that the anti-proliferative activity of the xanthones is substantially influenced by the position and number of attached hydroxyl and prenyl groups, and the presence of hydroxyl group ortho to the carbonyl function of xanthone scaffold contributes significantly to their cytotoxicity. The new prenylated xanthone 20 with a relatively simple structure, namely 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-prenylxanthone, was found to exhibit potent antitumor activities comparable to α-mangostin against all the five cancer cell lines. Further mechanistic studies suggested that compound 20 induces apoptosis and causes cell cycle arrest at S phase in HepG2 cells. These results have highlighted compound 20 as a new potential lead candidate for future development of novel potent broad-spectrum antitumor agents.Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates)) 07/2012; 8(6):1012-25. DOI:10.2174/157340612804075106 · 1.39 Impact Factor