Retinoic acid prevents ventricular remodelling induced by tobacco smoke exposure in rats.
ABSTRACT Our objective was to test the hypothesis that retinoic acid supplementation could attenuate ventricular remodelling induced by tobacco smoke exposure in rats.
Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: control (C, n = 8); exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS, n = 9); exposed to tobacco smoke and all-trans-retinoic acid (ETS-RA, n = 9). After two months, cardiac function and geometry were assessed by echocardiography, and geometry changes were confirmed by morphometric analysis. Data are expressed as mean +/- SD or medians (including the lower quartile and upper quartile). ETS showed higher normalized left ventricular diastolic diameters than groups C and ETS-RA (C = 18.4 +/- 3.57 mm/kg, ETS = 23.0 +/- 1.8, ETS-RA = 19.5 +/- 0.99; P <0.05) and systolic diameters (C = 8.25 +/- 2.16 mm/kg, ETS = 11.5 +/- 1.31, ETS-RA = 8.25 +/- 0.71 mm/kg; P < 0.05). ETS showed reduced ejection fraction (C= 91 +/- 2.0, ETS = 87 +/- 3.0, ETS-RA = 92 +/- 3.0; P < 0.05) and fractional shortening (C = 55.8 +/- 4.41%, ETS = 49.7 +/- 4.43%, ETS-RA = 57.6 +/- 5.15 %; P= 0.01) compared to C and ETS-RA. ETS had increased myocyte cross-sectional area (C = 294 +/- 21 mm2, ETS = 352 +/-44, ETS-RA = 310 +/- 35; P < 0.05) compared to C and ETS-RA. Considering all variables, there were no differences between groups C and ETS-RA.
Retinoic acid prevented ventricular remodelling induced by tobacco smoke exposure.
Article: Functional and structural adaptations in the pancreatic α-cell and changes in glucagon signaling during protein malnutrition.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic malnutrition leads to multiple changes in β-cell function and peripheral insulin actions to adapt glucose homeostasis to these restricted conditions. However, despite glucose homeostasis also depends on glucagon effects, the role of α-cells in malnutrition is largely unknown. Here, we studied α-cell function and hepatic glucagon signaling in mice fed with low-protein (LP) or normal-protein diet for 8 wk after weaning. Using confocal microscopy, we found that inhibition of Ca²⁺ signaling by glucose was impaired in α-cells of LP mice. Consistent with these findings, the ability of glucose to inhibit glucagon release in isolated islets was also diminished in LP mice. This altered secretion was not related with changes in either glucagon gene expression or glucagon content. A morphometric analysis showed that α-cell mass was significantly increased in malnourished animals, aspect that was probably related with their enhanced plasma glucagon levels. When we analyzed the hepatic function, we observed that the phosphorylation of protein kinase A and cAMP response-binding element protein in response to fasting or exogenous glucagon was impaired in LP mice. Additionally, the up-regulated gene expression in response to fasting observed in the hepatic glucagon receptor as well as several key hepatic enzymes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, glucose-6-phosphatase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, was altered in malnourished animals. Finally, liver glycogen mobilization in response to fasting and the ability of exogenous glucagon to raise plasma glucose levels were lower in LP mice. Therefore, chronic protein malnutrition leads to several alterations in both the α-cell function and hepatic glucagon signaling.Endocrinology 02/2012; 153(4):1663-72. · 4.46 Impact Factor