Arterial blood flow predicts graft survival in liver transplant patients.
ABSTRACT Proper liver perfusion is essential for sufficient organ function after liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of portal and arterial blood flow on liver function and organ survival after liver transplantation. The arterial and portal venous blood flow was measured intraoperatively by transit time flow measurement after reperfusion for 290 consecutive liver transplants. The graft survival, hepatic cell damage (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), and liver function (prothrombin ratio and bilirubin) were determined. Grafts were stratified into groups according to arterial blood flow measurements [<100 mL/minute for arterial blood flow group I (ART I), 100-240 mL/minute for ART II, and ≥ 240 mL/minute for ART III] and portal venous blood flow measurements (<1300 mL/minute for portal venous blood flow group I and ≥ 1300 mL/minute for portal venous blood flow group II). With multivariate analysis, the impact of blood flow on graft survival was determined, and potential confounders were considered. Decreased portal venous blood flow was associated with significantly less organ survival in univariate analysis but not in multivariate analysis. In contrast, the arterial blood flow was significantly correlated with organ survival after liver transplantation in univariate and multivariate analyses [hazard rate ratio = 2.5, confidence interval = 1.6-4.1, P < 0.001, median survival = 56.6 (ART I), 82.7 (ART II), or 100.7 months (ART III)]. Moreover, low arterial blood flow resulted in impaired postoperative organ function and higher rates of primary nonfunction. Biliary complications were not affected by blood flow. Other risk factors for graft failure that were identified by multivariate analysis included retransplantation, histidine tryptophan ketoglutarate solution versus University of Wisconsin solution, and donor treatment with epinephrine. Impaired arterial blood flow after reperfusion represents a significant predictor of primary graft nonfunction and is associated with impaired graft survival. Whether the intraoperative measurement of hepatic arterial flow is predictive of graft survival should be evaluated in a prospective trial.
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ABSTRACT: To describe the hemodynamic and oxygen transport patterns in survivors and nonsurvivors following liver transplantation (LT) and to assess their relationship to organ failure and mortality. Retrospective cohort. Surgical ICU in a tertiary care university teaching hospital. Consecutive series of 113 adults undergoing LT between 1984 and 1992. Patients were excluded if they died intraoperatively (n = 2), required retransplantation (n = 8), or their records were incomplete (n = 7). Preoperative severity of illness was assessed by the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system. Hemodynamic and oxygen transport variables were recorded immediately preoperatively and sequentially every 12 h during the first 2 postoperative days. Organ failures (pulmonary, renal, cardiovascular, hepatic, and central nervous system) were assessed for patients in the postoperative period. Patients were grouped as survivors (n = 82) or nonsurvivors (n = 14) with a mortality rate of 15%. Preoperative APACHE II scores were significantly lower in survivors compared with nonsurvivors (7 +/- 0 vs 11 +/- 2; p = 0.029). Both preoperatively and postoperatively, survivors sustained a relatively higher mean arterial pressure, stroke volume index, left ventricular stroke work index, cardiac index, and oxygen delivery as compared with nonsurvivors (p < 0.01). The postoperative decline in systemic blood flow that was seen in both groups was particularly prominent in nonsurvivors during the first 12 h following LT (p < 0.03). Nonsurvivors sustained an approximately fivefold increase in the rate of organ failure (p < 0.0001); all patients (n = 6) with 4 or more organ failures died. Nonsurvivors of LT have less cardiac reserve pretransplant; postoperatively, they demonstrate early myocardial depression and subsequently lower levels of cardiac index and oxygen delivery. Patients who develop these hemodynamic patterns are more prone to organ failure and death.Chest 02/1995; 107(1):218-24. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine if nitric oxide mediates the effects of exogenously administered adenosine on peripheral blood flow. An intravenous infusion of adenosine (1.0 mumol/kg/min) into male New Zealand white rabbits caused an increase in blood flow, measured using radiolabeled microspheres, throughout the gastrointestinal tract, as well as in the heart and kidneys. Prior administration of nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 10 mg/kg i.v. completely blocked the hyperemic effect of adenosine on all organs studied. Administration of L-arginine (300 mg/kg bolus and 50 mg/kg/min infusion) together with L-NAME restored the hyperemic effect of adenosine. This phenomenon was specified to the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in that a similar pressor response induced by phenylephrine (1.5 micrograms/kg/min) did not block the effects of adenosine. We conclude that the peripheral vasodilator response to intravenously administered adenosine in the rabbit is mediated by nitric oxide.Circulatory shock 08/1994; 43(3):103-6.
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ABSTRACT: The hepatic microcirculation in fatty and normal liver grafts in ACI rats was investigated using in vivo microscopy. Six groups were studied. They were: normal and fatty control livers (sham operated), 6-hr cold University of Wisconsin solution (UW)-preserved fatty and normal liver grafts (survival conditions, fatty and normal liver grafts), 18-hr cold UW-preserved fatty livers (nonsurvival conditions, fatty liver graft), and 24-hr cold UW-preserved normal livers (nonsurvival conditions, normal liver grafts). Fatty livers in all groups were found to have narrow and irregular sinusoids with blood cell adhesions to endothelial cells. The number of adhesions increased as the preservation time increased. Sinusoidal blood flow area decreased as the preservation time increased and was correlated with survival in both normal and fatty liver grafts. The phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells (corrected for flow) increased as the preservation time increased. The phagocytic Kupffer cell activity of the 18-hr preserved fatty liver group was greater than the activity of any other group. These features may cause liver cell death and contribute to primary graft nonfunction after transplantation of a fatty liver.Transplantation 12/1993; 56(5):1076-82. · 3.78 Impact Factor