Factors associated with HIV/AIDS diagnostic disclosure to HIV infected children receiving HAART: A multi-center study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health and Medical Science, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 03/2011; 6(3):e17572. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017572
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diagnostic disclosure of HIV/AIDS to a child is becoming an increasingly common issue in clinical practice. Nevertheless, some parents and health care professionals are reluctant to inform children about their HIV infection status. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of children who have knowledge of their serostatus and factors associated with disclosure in HIV-infected children receiving HAART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in five hospitals in Addis Ababa from February 18, 2008-April 28, 2008. The study populations were parents/caretakers and children living with HIV/AIDS who were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1 statistical software.
A total of 390 children/caretaker pairs were included in the study. Two hundred forty three children (62.3%) were between 6-9 years of age. HIV/AIDS status was known by 68 (17.4%) children, 93 (29%) caretakers reported knowing the child's serostatus two years prior to our survey, 180 (46.2%) respondents said that the child should be told about his/her HIV/AIDS status when he/she is older than 14 years of age. Children less than 9 years of age and those living with educated caregivers are less likely to know their results than their counterparts. Children referred from hospital's in-patient ward before attending the HIV clinic and private clinic were more likely to know their results than those from community clinic.
The proportion of disclosure of HIV/AIDS diagnosis to HIV-infected children is low. Strengthening referral linkage and health education tailored to educated caregivers are recommended to increase the rate of disclosure.

Download full-text


Available from: Sibhatu Biadgilign, Jul 06, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has enabled HIV-infected children to survive into adolescence and adulthood, creating need for their own HIV diagnosis disclosure. Disclosure has numerous social and medical benefits for the child and family; however, disclosure rates tend to be low, especially in developing countries, and further understanding of the barriers is needed. This study describes the patterns and correlates of disclosure among HIV-infected children in southwestern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a referral hospital pediatric HIV clinic between February and April 2012. Interviews were administered to caregivers of HIV-infected children aged 5-17 years. Data collected included socio-demographic characteristics of the child and caregiver, reported disclosure status, and caregivers' reasons for full disclosure or non-full disclosure of HIV status to their children. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was done to establish the socio-demographic correlates of disclosure. Caregivers provided data for 307 children; the median age was eight years (interquartile range [IQR] 7-11) and 52% were males. Ninety-five (31%) children had received full disclosure (48% of whom were >12 years), 22 children (7%) had received partial disclosure, 39 (13%) misinformation, and 151 (49%) no disclosure. Full disclosure was significantly more prevalent among the 9-11 and 12- to 17-year-olds compared to 5- to 8-year-olds (p-value < 0.001). The most frequently stated reason for disclosure was the hope that disclosure would improve medication adherence; the most frequently stated reason for nondisclosure was the belief that the child was too young to understand his/her illness. There was an inverse relationship between age and full disclosure and partial disclosure was rare across all age groups, suggesting a pattern of rapid, late disclosure. Disclosure programs should emphasize the importance of gradual disclosure, starting at younger ages, to maximize the benefits to the child and caregiver.
    AIDS Care 11/2014; 27(4):1-7. DOI:10.1080/09540121.2014.978735
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV disclosure from parent to child is complex and challenging to HIV-positive parents and healthcare professionals. The purpose of the study was to understand the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. Sixteen HIV-positive parents, seven HIV-positive children, and five HIV-negative children completed semistructured, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the Van Kaam method; NVivo 8 software was used to assist data analysis. We present data on the process of disclosure based on how participants recommended full disclosure be approached to HIV-positive and negative children. Participants recommended disclosure as a process starting at five years with full disclosure delivered at 10 years when the child was capable of understanding the illness, or by 14 years when the child was mature enough to receive the news if full disclosure had not been conducted earlier. Important considerations at the time of full disclosure included the parent's and/or child's health statuses, number of infected family members' illnesses to be disclosed to the child, child's maturity and understanding level, and the person best suited to deliver full disclosure to the child. The results also revealed it was important to address important life events such as taking a national school examination during disclosure planning and delivery. Recommendations are made for inclusion into HIV disclosure guidelines, manuals, and programs in resource-poor nations with high HIV prevalence.
    07/2014; 2:e486. DOI:10.7717/peerj.486
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Informing children of their own HIV status is an important aspect of long-term disease management, yet there is little evidence of how and when this type of disclosure takes place in resource-limited settings and its impact. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Databases were searched for the terms hiv AND disclos* AND (child* OR adolesc*). We reviewed 934 article citations and the references of relevant articles to find articles describing disclosure to children and adolescents in resource-limited settings. Data were extracted regarding prevalence of disclosure, factors influencing disclosure, process of disclosure and impact of disclosure on children and caregivers. Results Thirty-two articles met the inclusion criteria, with 16 reporting prevalence of disclosure. Of these 16 studies, proportions of disclosed children ranged from 0 to 69.2%. Important factors influencing disclosure included the child's age and perceived ability to understand the meaning of HIV infection and factors related to caregivers, such as education level, openness about their own HIV status and beliefs about children's capacities. Common barriers to disclosure were fear that the child would disclose HIV status to others, fear of stigma and concerns for children's emotional or physical health. Disclosure was mostly led by caregivers and conceptualized as a one-time event, while others described it as a gradual process. Few studies measured the impact of disclosure on children. Findings suggested adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) improved post-disclosure but the emotional and psychological effects of disclosure were variable. Conclusions Most studies show that a minority of HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings know his/her HIV status. While caregivers identify many factors that influence disclosure, studies suggest both positive and negative effects for children. More research is needed to implement age- and culture-appropriate disclosure in resource-limited settings.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 05/2013; 16(1):18466. DOI:10.7448/IAS.16.1.18466