Enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease: some answers but more questions

Division of Biochemical Diseases, Department of Paediatrics, BC Children's and Women's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (Impact Factor: 1.34). 01/2011; 7:69-82. DOI: 10.2147/TCRM.S11987
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fabry disease (FD) is a multisystem, X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by enzyme deficiency of α-galactosidase A. Affected patients have symptoms including acroparesthesias, angiokeratomas, and hypohidrosis. More serious manifestations include debilitating pain and gastrointestinal symptoms, proteinuria and gradual deterioration of renal function leading to end-stage renal disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and stroke. Heterozygous females may have symptoms as severe as males with the classic phenotype. Before 2001, treatment of patients with FD was supportive. The successful development of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been a great advancement in the treatment of patients with FD and can stabilize renal function and cardiac size, as well as improve pain and quality of life of patients with FD. In this review, we have provided a critical appraisal of the literature on the effects of ERT for FD. This analysis shows that data available on the treatment of FD are often derived from studies which are not controlled, rely on surrogate markers, and are of insufficient power to detect differences on hard clinical endpoints. Further studies of higher quality are needed to answer the questions that remain concerning the efficacy of ERT for FD.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current available evidence on long-term effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Fabry disease is limited. More insight is needed whether ERT effectiveness differs in patients with and without baseline end-organ damage. Through a systematic review, untreated and ERT treated males and females with Fabry disease were compared for main clinical outcomes: renal function, left ventricular mass (LVmass), cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) and end-organ complications. Through a meta-analysis ERT effectiveness was estimated in different disease stages. Two reviewers assessed quality of the included studies according to guidelines for prognosis research. Data were synthesized using a random effects meta-analysis. Thirty-one studies were systematically reviewed while six studies were included in the meta-analysis. In patients with a GFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2), decline of renal function was similar for treated and untreated patients. Only ERT treated males with a GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) had a slower rate of decline in renal function, possibly attributable to anti-proteinuric therapy. Regardless of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) at baseline, LVmass remained stable or increased in males despite ERT, however at a slower rate compared to untreated male patients. In ERT treated females with LVH LVmass decreased, and remained stable in females without LVH. WMLs can not be prevented by ERT. Stroke, cardiac and end-stage renal complications develop, though the incidence of new complications seems to be reduced during ERT. ERT is effective in reducing LVH, but has a limited effect on renal function. Improved treatment options are needed for Fabry disease.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 02/2014; 37(3). DOI:10.1007/s10545-014-9677-8 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the inappropriate accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in tissues due to a deficiency in the enzyme α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A). Anderson-Fabry cardiomyopathy is characterized by structural, valvular, vascular and conduction abnormalities, and is now the most common cause of mortality in patients with AFD. Large-scale metabolic and genetic screening studies have revealed AFD to be prevalent in populations of diverse ethnic origins, and the variant form of AFD represents an unrecognized health burden. Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder, and genetic testing is critical for the diagnosis of AFD in women. Echocardiography with strain imaging and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using late enhancement and T1 mapping are important imaging tools. The current therapy for AFD is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which can reverse or prevent AFD progression, while gene therapy and the use of molecular chaperones represent promising novel therapies for AFD. Anderson-Fabry cardiomyopathy is an important and potentially reversible cause of heart failure that involves LVH, increased susceptibility to arrhythmias and valvular regurgitation. Genetic testing and cardiac MRI are important diagnostic tools, and AFD cardiomyopathy is treatable if ERT is introduced early.
    Heart Failure Reviews 07/2014; 20(2). DOI:10.1007/s10741-014-9452-9 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is an X-linked inherited metabolic condition where the deficit of the alpha-galactosidase A enzyme, encoded by the GLA gene, leads to glycosphingolipid storage, mainly globotriaosylceramide. To date, more than 600 mutations have been identified in human GLA gene that are responsible for FD, including missense and nonsense mutations, small and large deletions. Such mutations are usually inherited, and cases of de novo onset occur rarely. In this article we report an interesting case of a 44-year-old male patient suffering from a severe form of Fabry disease, with negative family history. The patient showed signs such as cornea verticillata, angiokeratomas, cardiac and neurological manifestations, an end-stage renal disease and he had low alpha-galactosidase A activity. We detected, in this subject, the mutation c.493 G > C in the third exon of the GLA gene which causes the amino acid substitution D165H in the protein. This mutation affects the amino acid - belonging to the group of buried residues - involved, probably, in the preservation of the protein folding. Moreover, studies of multiple sequence alignment indicate that this amino acid is highly conserved, thus strengthening the hypothesis that it is a key amino acid to the enzyme functionality.The study of the relatives of the patient showed that, surprisingly, none of the members of his family of origin had this genetic alteration, suggesting a de novo mutation. Only his 11-year-old daughter - showing acroparaesthesias and heat intolerance with reduced enzymatic activity - had the same mutation. We suggest that a non-inherited mutation of the alpha-galactosidase A gene is responsible for Fabry disease in the patient who had reduced enzyme activity and classical clinical manifestations of the disease. In a family, it is rare to find only one Fabry disease affected subject with a de novo mutation. These findings emphasize the importance of early diagnosis, genetic counselling, studying the genealogical tree of the patients and starting enzyme replacement therapy to prevent irreversible vital organ damage that occurs during the course of the disease.
    BMC Research Notes 01/2014; 7(1):11. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-11

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 6, 2014