Recent progress in the study of G protein-coupled receptors with molecular dynamics computer simulations.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.66). 03/2011; 1808(7):1868-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2011.03.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large, biomedically important family of proteins, and the recent explosion of new high-resolution structural information about them has provided an enormous opportunity for computational modeling to make major contributions. In particular, molecular dynamics simulations have become a driving factor in many areas of GPCR biophysics, improving our understanding of lipid-protein interaction, activation mechanisms, and internal hydration. Given that computers will continue to get faster and more structures will be solved, the importance of computational methods will only continue to grow, particularly as simulation research is more closely coupled to experiment.

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    ABSTRACT: The µ opioid receptor (µOR), the principal target to control pain, belongs to the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) family, one of the most highlighted protein families due to their importance as therapeutic targets. The conformational flexibility of GPCRs is one of their essential characteristics as they take part in ligand recognition and subsequent activation or inactivation mechanisms. It is assessed that the intrinsic mechanical properties of the µOR, more specifically its particular flexibility behavior, would facilitate the accomplishment of specific biological functions, at least in their first steps, even in the absence of a ligand or any chemical species usually present in its biological environment. The study of the mechanical properties of the µOR would thus bring some indications regarding the highly efficient ability of the µOR to transduce cellular message. We therefore investigate the intrinsic flexibility of the µOR in its apo-form using all-atom Molecular Dynamics simulations at the sub-microsecond time scale. We particularly consider the µOR embedded in a simplified membrane model without specific ions, particular lipids, such as cholesterol moieties, or any other chemical species that could affect the flexibility of the µOR. Our analyses highlighted an important local effect due to the various bendability of the helices resulting in a diversity of shape and volume sizes adopted by the µOR binding site. Such property explains why the µOR can interact with ligands presenting highly diverse structural geometry. By investigating the topology of the µOR binding site, a conformational global effect is depicted: the correlation between the motional modes of the extra- and intracellular parts of µOR on one hand, along with a clear rigidity of the central µOR domain on the other hand. Our results show how the modularity of the µOR flexibility is related to its pre-ability to activate and to present a basal activity.
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