Changes in the prevalence of bipolar disorders between 1998 and 2008 in an Australian population

Royal Adelaide Hospital Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Adelaide, Australia.
Bipolar Disorders (Impact Factor: 4.97). 03/2011; 13(2):182-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00907.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To identify any changes in the prevalence of bipolar disorder (BD) between 1998, 2004, and 2008.
Cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted involving random and representative samples of South Australian adults aged ≥ 15 years. BD was assessed using the mood module of the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders instrument (PRIME-MD), a single question related to doctor-diagnosed BD and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), which defines bipolar spectrum disorder.
  The PRIME-MD-derived prevalence of BD increased significantly from 0.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27-0.79] in 1998 to 1.0% (95% CI: 0.61-1.31) in 2004 and 1.5% (95% CI: 1.05-1.91) in 2008, demonstrating a significant increased linear trend (χ² =13.91, df=2, p=0.002). Similarly, reported doctor-diagnosed BD increased significantly from 1.1% (95% CI: 0.75-1.51) in 1998 to 1.7% (95% CI: 1.26-2.18) in 2004 and 2.9% (95% CI: 2.28-3.48) in 2008 (Linear trend test χ²=24.55, df=2, p<0.001). The MDQ-derived diagnosis of bipolar spectrum disorder changed from 2.5% (95% CI: 1.96-3.08) in 2004 to 3.3% (95% CI: 2.66-3.94) in 2008 (χ² =3.22, df=1, p<0.10), but this difference did not attain statistical significance. Confining the analysis to those positive for BD on all three methods, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of the detection of BD using all three measures (χ² =4.43, df=1, p=0.03) between 2004 and 2008.
There has been an increased prevalence of BD in South Australia over the last decade, but this may be related to changing diagnostic practices rather than a true increase.

8 Reads
  • Source
    • "The lifetime prevalence of BD I (manic, mixed or depressed) and BD II (hypomanic, depressed) is estimated as 2.1%; of the US population, however, if one considers sub-threshold cases, the lifetime prevalence may be as high as 4.5%; [2]. Similar figures were reported by a recent Australian-based study in which the prevalence of BD was estimated between 2.5%; and 2.9%; [3,4]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The Bipolar Comprehensive Outcomes Study (BCOS) is a 2-year, prospective, non-interventional, observational study designed to explore the clinical and functional outcomes associated with ‘real-world’ treatment of participants with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder. All participants received treatment as usual. There was no study medication. Methods Participants prescribed either conventional mood stabilizers (CMS; n = 155) alone, or olanzapine with, or without, CMS (olanzapine ± CMS; n = 84) were assessed every 3 months using several measures, including the Young Mania Rating Scale, 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale – Bipolar Version, and the EuroQol Instrument. This paper reports 24-month longitudinal clinical, pharmacological, functional, and socioeconomic data. Results On average, participants were 42 (range 18 to 79) years of age, 58%; were female, and 73%; had a diagnosis of bipolar I. Polypharmacy was the usual approach to pharmacological treatment; participants took a median of 5 different psychotropic medications over the course of the study, and spent a median proportion of time of 100%; of the study on mood stabilizers, 90%; on antipsychotics, 9%; on antidepressants, and 5%; on benzodiazepines/hypnotics. By 24 months, the majority of participants had achieved both symptomatic and syndromal remission of both mania and depression. Symptomatic relapse rates were similar for both the CMS alone (65%;) and the olanzapine ± CMS (61%;) cohorts. Conclusions Participants with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder in this study were receiving complex medication treatments that were often discordant with recommendations made in contemporary major treatment guidelines. The majority of study participants demonstrated some clinical and functional improvements, but not all achieved remission of symptoms or syndrome.
    BMC Psychiatry 12/2012; 12(1):228. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-12-228 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a “spectrum” of disorders, characterized by varying degrees of symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Among Psychiatric disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorders have the strongest evidence for a genetic basis, yet the search for specific genes contributing to these often devastating developmental syndromes has proven extraordinarily difficult. Bipolar Disorder (BP) is a manic-depressive disorder whose symptoms are characterized by extremities in moods. It is also called as the “Mood disorder”. BP, like, ASD also has a strong genetic basis and identification of the candidate genes still remains an ongoing effort. Literature studies point to the hypothesis that ASD and BP have good chances of comorbidity and that they may share common pathways for their manifestation. But this hypothesis has not been worked on in depth. Thus, the study focuses on identifying the chances of their comorbidity by identifying their common pathways and the genes involved in the pathways and also discuss the degree of chances of their comorbidity based on the genes involved in the common pathways. Networks for the genes are also constructed to represent their commonness or uniqueness for the disorders.
    Bioinformation 09/2011; 7(3):102-6. DOI:10.6026/97320630007102 · 0.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.
    Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy 12/2012; 35(2):99-105. DOI:10.1590/S2237-60892013000200002
Show more