Changes in the prevalence of bipolar disorders between 1998 and 2008 in an Australian population.
ABSTRACT To identify any changes in the prevalence of bipolar disorder (BD) between 1998, 2004, and 2008.
Cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted involving random and representative samples of South Australian adults aged ≥ 15 years. BD was assessed using the mood module of the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders instrument (PRIME-MD), a single question related to doctor-diagnosed BD and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), which defines bipolar spectrum disorder.
The PRIME-MD-derived prevalence of BD increased significantly from 0.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27-0.79] in 1998 to 1.0% (95% CI: 0.61-1.31) in 2004 and 1.5% (95% CI: 1.05-1.91) in 2008, demonstrating a significant increased linear trend (χ² =13.91, df=2, p=0.002). Similarly, reported doctor-diagnosed BD increased significantly from 1.1% (95% CI: 0.75-1.51) in 1998 to 1.7% (95% CI: 1.26-2.18) in 2004 and 2.9% (95% CI: 2.28-3.48) in 2008 (Linear trend test χ²=24.55, df=2, p<0.001). The MDQ-derived diagnosis of bipolar spectrum disorder changed from 2.5% (95% CI: 1.96-3.08) in 2004 to 3.3% (95% CI: 2.66-3.94) in 2008 (χ² =3.22, df=1, p<0.10), but this difference did not attain statistical significance. Confining the analysis to those positive for BD on all three methods, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of the detection of BD using all three measures (χ² =4.43, df=1, p=0.03) between 2004 and 2008.
There has been an increased prevalence of BD in South Australia over the last decade, but this may be related to changing diagnostic practices rather than a true increase.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy. 12/2012; 35(2):99-105.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Bipolar Comprehensive Outcomes Study (BCOS) is a 2-year, prospective, non-interventional, observational study designed to explore the clinical and functional outcomes associated with 'real-world' treatment of participants with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder. All participants received treatment as usual. There was no study medication. METHODS: Participants prescribed either conventional mood stabilizers (CMS; n = 155) alone, or olanzapine with, or without, CMS (olanzapine +/- CMS; n = 84) were assessed every 3 months using several measures, including the Young Mania Rating Scale, 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale -- Bipolar Version, and the EuroQol Instrument. This paper reports 24-month longitudinal clinical, pharmacological, functional, and socioeconomic data. RESULTS: On average, participants were 42 (range 18 to 79) years of age, 58% were female, and 73% had a diagnosis of bipolar I. Polypharmacy was the usual approach to pharmacological treatment; participants took a median of 5 different psychotropic medications over the course of the study, and spent a median proportion of time of 100% of the study on mood stabilizers, 90% on antipsychotics, 9% on antidepressants, and 5% on benzodiazepines/hypnotics. By 24 months, the majority of participants had achieved both symptomatic and syndromal remission of both mania and depression. Symptomatic relapse rates were similar for both the CMS alone (65%) and the olanzapine +/- CMS (61%) cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder in this study were receiving complex medication treatments that were often discordant with recommendations made in contemporary major treatment guidelines. The majority of study participants demonstrated some clinical and functional improvements, but not all achieved remission of symptoms or syndrome.BMC Psychiatry 12/2012; 12(1):228. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current study explored criminal offending among people diagnosed with bipolar disorder with and without comorbid substance use and compared this with a community sample with no history of bipolar disorder. A case-linkage design was used to compare patterns of officially recorded criminal offending between 1,076 people with bipolar disorder drawn from a state-wide psychiatric case register with a community comparison group. Those with bipolar disorder were significantly more likely than community members to be charged with, convicted of, and be found guilty of, violent, non-violent and intermediate level criminal offences. Those with a comorbid substance use disorder were two times more likely than those without a substance use disorder to offend; both groups had a significantly higher chance of offending than the community sample. Females with bipolar disorder were significantly more likely to have been convicted of violent offences, irrespective of substance use. Significant interactions were found between bipolar disorder and substance use for males and females with respect to violent offending and for males with respect to non-violent offending. There is a statistically significant association between bipolar disorder and the likelihood of having a criminal history. Co-occurring substance use differentially impacts on the likelihood of criminal offending for males and females.Social Psychiatry 05/2014; · 2.05 Impact Factor