Changes in the prevalence of bipolar disorders between 1998 and 2008 in an Australian population
ABSTRACT To identify any changes in the prevalence of bipolar disorder (BD) between 1998, 2004, and 2008.
Cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted involving random and representative samples of South Australian adults aged ≥ 15 years. BD was assessed using the mood module of the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders instrument (PRIME-MD), a single question related to doctor-diagnosed BD and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), which defines bipolar spectrum disorder.
The PRIME-MD-derived prevalence of BD increased significantly from 0.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27-0.79] in 1998 to 1.0% (95% CI: 0.61-1.31) in 2004 and 1.5% (95% CI: 1.05-1.91) in 2008, demonstrating a significant increased linear trend (χ² =13.91, df=2, p=0.002). Similarly, reported doctor-diagnosed BD increased significantly from 1.1% (95% CI: 0.75-1.51) in 1998 to 1.7% (95% CI: 1.26-2.18) in 2004 and 2.9% (95% CI: 2.28-3.48) in 2008 (Linear trend test χ²=24.55, df=2, p<0.001). The MDQ-derived diagnosis of bipolar spectrum disorder changed from 2.5% (95% CI: 1.96-3.08) in 2004 to 3.3% (95% CI: 2.66-3.94) in 2008 (χ² =3.22, df=1, p<0.10), but this difference did not attain statistical significance. Confining the analysis to those positive for BD on all three methods, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of the detection of BD using all three measures (χ² =4.43, df=1, p=0.03) between 2004 and 2008.
There has been an increased prevalence of BD in South Australia over the last decade, but this may be related to changing diagnostic practices rather than a true increase.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.12/2012; 35(2):99-105. DOI:10.1590/S2237-60892013000200002
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, there have been many innovative changes in the field of mental illness. The field has generated numerous creative ideas that help to expand our understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. Unfortunately, some ideas are best viewed as passing fads that display a characteristic sudden rise in popularity, only to disappear after a brief period of fame and acclaim. The present manuscript confronts several recent and historical fads in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. Instead of seeking novel approaches, mental health professionals are best guided by common sense and modest skepticism.Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 03/2014; 44(1). DOI:10.1007/s10879-013-9250-z