Criminal conviction, impulsivity, and course of illness in bipolar disorder.
ABSTRACT Criminal behavior in bipolar disorder may be related to substance use disorders, personality disorders, or other comorbidities potentially related to impulsivity. We investigated relationships among impulsivity, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder symptoms, substance use disorder, course of illness, and history of criminal behavior in bipolar disorder.
A total of 112 subjects with bipolar disorder were recruited from the community. Diagnosis was by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II); psychiatric symptom assessment by the Change version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-C); severity of Axis II symptoms by ASPD and borderline personality disorder SCID-II symptoms; and impulsivity by questionnaire and response inhibition measures.
A total of 29 subjects self-reported histories of criminal conviction. Compared to other subjects, those with convictions had more ASPD symptoms, less education, more substance use disorder, more suicide attempt history, and a more recurrent course with propensity toward mania. They had increased impulsivity as reflected by impaired response inhibition, but did not differ in questionnaire-measured impulsivity. On logit analysis, impaired response inhibition and ASPD symptoms, but not substance use disorder, were significantly associated with criminal history. Subjects convicted for violent crimes were not more impulsive than those convicted for nonviolent crimes.
In this community sample, a self-reported history of criminal behavior is related to ASPD symptoms, a recurrent and predominately manic course of illness, and impaired response inhibition in bipolar disorder, independent of current clinical state.
Article: Laboratory and psychometric measurements of impulsivity among violent and nonviolent female parolees.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Female parolees participated in a study to determine the relationship between behavioral and psychometric measures of impulsivity and their previous criminal history. Subjects were assigned to a violent (n = 10) or nonviolent group (n = 20) based upon their criminal history. Subjects were given two response options defined as: 1) an impulsive choice--small monetary reward (5 cents) after a short fixed delay of 5 sec, and 2) a self-control choice--a larger monetary reward (15 cents) after a variable longer delay initially set at 15 sec. The measure of impulsivity in this behavioral choice procedure was the number of trials on which the subject selected the impulsive option. This definition of impulsivity is based upon an extensive experimental literature in nonhumans and humans related to delay of gratification, that is, the ability to tolerate long delays imposed between the initiation of behavior and the presentation of a reinforcer. Our results indicated that the violent female subjects selected the impulsive option significantly more often than the nonviolent female parolees. The correlation between impulsive and aggressive responses among the female parolees was nonsignificant and negative, in contrast to a significant positive correlation previously reported among male parolees.Biological Psychiatry 08/1999; 46(2):273-80. · 8.28 Impact Factor
Article: Examining self-control as a multidimensional predictor of crime and drug use in adolescents with criminal histories.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The general theory of crime posits that variability in propensities to engage in crime and deviance is partly a function of individual differences in low self-control (LSC). LSC is hypothesized to comprise of six subdomains: impulsiveness, preference for physical activities, risk seeking, self-centeredness, preference for simple tasks, and volatile temper. Using structural equation modeling, LSC was examined to determine if a global self-control measure or a multidimensional measure of its subdomains was a more salient predictor of violent and property crimes and drug use among adolescent male offenders (n = 317). Only the multidimensional model adequately fit the data. Risk seeking predicted violent and property crimes, whereas volatile temper predicted violent crimes and drug use. The general theory of crime may obscure differences in the explanatory power of self-control subfactors for specific types of crime, especially within at-risk youth. Findings have implications for effective interventions among adolescent males with criminal histories.The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 07/2008; 36(2):137-49. · 1.32 Impact Factor