Article

Recruitment of asthmatic ethnic minorities into a methacholine research study: factors influencing participation.

San Francisco State University, California San Francisco, CA 94132, USA.
Journal of the National Medical Association (Impact Factor: 0.91). 02/2011; 103(2):138-44.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT How to recruit minority participants into research studies has been an issue since 1993, when NIH funding guidelines required minorities to be included as research participants.
The purpose of this analysis was to determine what factors affected recruitment of asthmatic minorities into a large bronchoconstrictor study involving African-Americans, Hispanics/Mexican Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and whites with mild asthma (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration > or = 70%).
Ethnic minorities were recruited for 3 years. Recruitment strategies included physician and clinic referrals, newspaper ads, posters in health care settings, asthma databases, and electronic resources. Findings: After 3 years, the total number of referrals was 650, with 50 from medical doctor clinic settings and 600 from all of the other resources. The inclusion/exclusion criteria were clearly listed, but only 64.5% (419/650) of respondents met inclusion criteria. Of these, only 31.9% (134/419) [corrected] met pulmonary function testing criteria. Only 5, or 1% of the 50 medical doctor clinic referrals met inclusion criteria--1 participated. A total of 106, or 82.8%, completed all of the study procedures; for 87.7% of participants this was their first research experience. Hispanics/Mexican Americans accounted for only 14.8% of the total recruitment responses.
We believe our recruitment strategies did encourage ethnic minorities to participate, but the inclusion criteria of a positive methacholine response proved to be a study enrollment barrier.

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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the ethnic differences in symptom reporting and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) for women with mild asthma during a methacholine (McH) challenge. The purpose of this sub-analysis was to determine: (1) whether AHR to McH varied by the ethnicity of women with mild asthma and (2) whether ethnic word descriptors (EWDs) varied by the ethnicity during induced bronchoconstriction. Specific inclusion criteria included the following: FEV(1) (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) ≥ 70% predicted normal, PC(30) ≤ 8 mg/McH, β(2) inhaler only, and self-reported ethnicity of African American (AFAM), Mexican American-Hispanic-Latino (MexAMLat), Asian-Pacific Islander (Asian PI), or white. Serial pulmonary function testing (PFT) and Borg, visual analogue scale (VAS), and EWDs were collected. A total of 44 women, mean age of 31.3 years old, with a mean baseline FEV(1) of 2.85 L comprised this sub-analysis. Ethnic-racial diversity included: 12 AFAMs, 5 MexAMLat, 13 Asian-PIs, and 14 whites. All had atopy ≥ 2 pinprick responses of 3 mm. At PC(30), Asian-PI women required a significantly (p < .05) smaller mean dose of McH 1.9 mg/mL. MexAMLat women required an McH dose of 1.6 mg/mL. At PC(30), McH dose was 2.9 mg/mL for AFAMs and 3.0 mg/mL for whites, respectively. Asian-PIs who used only upper airway EWDs at PC(30) vere itchy throat, itchy chin, and constricted throat (p < .001). AFAMs significant EWDs were itchy throat, itchy chin/face, and tight throat (p < .01). Lower airway EWD was used by both MexAMLat and whites. Significant EWD for Whites were tight chest (p < .01) and hard to inhale/lungs tight (p < .001). Asian-PI women required a significantly smaller dose (p < .05) of McH to induce a PC(30). AFAM and whites required a comparable dose of Mch at PC(30). Asian-PI and AFAM women used only upper airway EWD. Asian-PI women may be at a greater risk for acute asthma episodes that are not recognized or treated due to their upper airway symptom reporting.
    Journal of Asthma 12/2011; 49(1):36-44. DOI:10.3109/02770903.2011.637839 · 1.83 Impact Factor

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