Article

Gli1 enhances migration and invasion via up-regulation of MMP-11 and promotes metastasis in ERα negative breast cancer cell lines

Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis (Impact Factor: 3.73). 03/2011; 28(5):437-49. DOI: 10.1007/s10585-011-9382-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gli1 is an established oncogene and its expression in Estrogen Receptor (ER) α negative and triple negative breast cancers is predictive of a poor prognosis; however, the biological functions regulated by Gli1 in breast cancer have not been extensively evaluated. Herein, Gli1 was over-expressed or down-regulated (by RNA interference and by expression of the repressor form of Gli3) in the ERα negative, human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315. Reduced expression of Gli1 in these two cell lines resulted in a decrease in migration and invasion. Gli1 over-expression increased the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells with a corresponding increase in expression of MMP-11. Silencing MMP-11 in MDA-MB-231 cells that over-expressed Gli1 abrogated the Gli1-induced enhancement of migration and invasion. Sustained suppression of Gli1 expression decreased growth of MDA-MB-231 in vitro by increasing apoptosis and decreasing proliferation. In addition, silencing of Gli1 reduced the numbers and sizes of pulmonary metastases of MDA-MB-231 in an in vivo experimental metastasis assay. In summary, Gli1 promotes the growth, survival, migration, invasion and metastasis of ERα negative breast cancer. Additionally, MMP-11 is up-regulated by Gli1 and mediates the migration and invasion induced by Gli1 in MDA-MB-231.

Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10585-011-9382-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Danny R Welch, Jul 05, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
174 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this review, we describe the patterns of known immunological components in breast milk and examine the relationship between breastfeeding and reduced risk of breast cancer. The top risk factors for breast cancer are a woman's age and family history, specifically having a first-degree relative with breast cancer. Women that have a history of breastfeeding have been shown to have reduced rates of breast cancer. Although the specific cause has not been elucidated, previous studies have suggested that breastfeeding reduces the risk of breast cancer primarily through two mechanisms: the differentiation of breast tissue and reduction in the lifetime number of ovulatory cycles. In this context, one of the primary components of human milk that is postulated to affect cancer risk is alpha-lactalbumin. Tumour cell death can be induced by HAMLET (a human milk complex of alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid). HAMLET induces apoptosis only in tumour cells, while normal differentiated cells are resistant to its effects. Therefore, HAMLET may provide safe and effective protection against the development of breast cancer. Mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed their babies because the complex components of human milk secretion make it an ideal food source for babies and clinical evidence has shown that there is a lower risk of breast cancer in women who breastfed their babies.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 11/2012; 13(11):5327-32. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.11.5327 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the left ventricle (LV) response to hypoxia by comparing male Sprague Dawley rats exposed for 7 days to normoxia (control; n=18), chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH; n=12) and chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH; n=12). Out of the 168 inflammatory, extracellular matrix and adhesion molecule genes evaluated, Ltb, Cdh4, Col5a1, Ecm1, MMP-11 and TIMP-2 increased in the LV (range: 87-138%), whereas Tnfrsf1a decreased 27%, indicating an increase in inflammatory status with CSH (all P<0.05). CIH decreased Ltb, Spp1 and Ccl5 levels, indicating reduced inflammatory status. While Laminin β2 gene levels increased 123%, MMP-9 and fibronectin gene levels both decreased 74% in CIH (all P<0.05). Right ventricle/body weight ratios increased in CSH (1.1±0.1 g g(-1)) compared with control (0.7±0.1 g g(-1)) and CIH (0.8±0.1 g g(-1); both P<0.05). Lung to body weight increased in CSH, while LV/body weight ratios were similar among all three groups. With CIH, myocyte cross sectional areas increased 25% and perivascular fibrosis increased 100% (both P<0.05). Gene changes were independent of global changes and were validated by protein levels. MMP-9 protein levels decreased 94% and fibronectin protein levels decreased 42% in CIH (both P<0.05). Consistent with a decreased inflammatory status, HIF-2α and eNOS protein levels were 36% and 44% decreased, respectively, in CIH (both P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that following 7 days of hypoxia, inflammation increases in response to CSH and decreases in response to CIH. This report is the first to demonstrate specific and differential changes seen in the LV during chronic sustained and CIH.
    Hypertension Research 04/2012; 35(8):811-8. DOI:10.1038/hr.2012.32 · 2.94 Impact Factor