Msi-1 is a predictor of survival and a novel therapeutic target in colon cancer.
ABSTRACT Musashi1 (Msi-1), a neural RNA-binding protein, plays an important role in regulating cell differentiation in precursor cells. Recently, aberrant expression of Msi-1 has been detected in several malignancies. However, its role in the progression of colon cancer is largely unknown.
We used Western blotting to examine Msi-1 protein expression in 8 cases of primary colon cancer lesions and paired normal colonic mucosa. Msi-1 expression and clinicopathological significance were determined by immunohistochemical staining in a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 203 cases of primary colon cancer paired with noncancerous tissue and 66 lymph node metastasis (LNM) tissues. RNAi was used to analyze the biological function of Msi-1 in vitro.
LNM tissue exhibited a striking increase in Msi-1 expression when compared with primary colon cancer and adjacent normal mucosa (87.9% vs. 64.5% vs. 16.7%, P < .001). Overexpression of Msi-1 was associated with higher clinical stage, T stage, lymph node metastasis, presence of distant metastasis, and Ki-67 positivity. Msi-1 served as an independent prognostic marker whose expression levels correlated with poorer metastasis-free survival (MFS) (HR 5.4; P < .001) and poorer overall survival (OS) (HR 3.8; P < .001). Msi-1 silencing significantly inhibited proliferation ability and attenuated the migration and invasion activity of colon cancer cells.
Our study provides the basis to explore the use of Msi-1 as a novel prognostic biomarker in colon cancer patients. Aberrant overexpression of Msi-1 during metastasis of colon cancer also suggests that it is a potential therapeutic target.
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ABSTRACT: Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children, is a disease whose mechanisms are now beginning to be uncovered by high-throughput studies of somatic mutations, mRNA expression patterns, and epigenetic profiles of patient tumors. One emerging theme from studies that sequenced the tumor genomes of large cohorts of medulloblastoma patients is frequent mutation of RNA binding proteins. Proteins which bind multiple RNA targets can act as master regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level to co-ordinate cellular processes and alter the phenotype of the cell. Identification of the target genes of RNA binding proteins may highlight essential pathways of medulloblastomagenesis that cannot be detected by study of transcriptomics alone.Furthermore, a subset of RNA binding proteins are attractive drug targets. For example, compounds that are under development as anti-viral targets due to their ability to inhibit RNA helicases could also be tested in novel approaches to medulloblastoma therapy by targeting key RNA binding proteins. In this review, we discuss a number of RNA binding proteins, including Musashi1 (MSI1), DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 3 X-linked (DDX3X), DDX31, and cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1), which play potentially critical roles in the growth and/or maintenance of medulloblastoma.Molecules and Cells 03/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The high incidence of recurrence and the poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) necessitate the discovery of new predictive markers of HCC invasion and prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the expression pattern of two members of a novel oncogene family, Musashi1 (MSI1) and Musashi2 (MSI2) in 40 normal hepatic tissue specimens, 149 HCC specimens and their adjacent non-tumourous tissues. We observed that MSI1 and MSI2 were significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues. High expression levels of MSI1 and MSI2 were detectable in 37.6% (56/149) and 49.0% (73/149) of the HCC specimens, respectively, but were rarely detected in adjacent non-tumourous tissues and were never detected in normal hepatic tissue specimens. Nevertheless, only high expression of MSI2 correlated with poor prognosis. In addition, MSI2 up-regulation correlated with clinicopathological parameters representative of highly invasive HCC. Further study indicated that MSI2 might enhance invasion of HCC by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Knockdown of MSI2 significantly decreased the invasion of HCC cells and changed the expression pattern of EMT markers. Moreover, immunohistochemistry assays of 149 HCC tissue specimens further confirmed this correlation. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrated that MSI2 correlates with EMT and has the potential to be a new predictive biomarker of HCC prognosis and invasion to help guide diagnosis and treatment of post-operative HCC patients.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 10/2013; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a potent neurotrophic factor, has been identified to affect cancer cell metastasis and invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GDNF-induced colon cancer cell migration remains unclear. GDNF is found to be positively correlated with malignancy in human colon cancer patients. The migratory activities of 2 human colon cancer cell lines, HCT-116 and SW480, were found to be enhanced in the presence of human GDNF. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also increased in response to GDNF stimulation, along with VEGF mRNA expression and transcriptional activity. The enhancement of GDNF-induced cancer cell migration was antagonized by a VEGF-neutralized antibody. Our results also showed that the expression of VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) was increased in response to GDNF stimulation, whereas GDNF-induced cancer cell migration was reduced by a VEGFR inhibitor. The GDNF-induced VEGF expression was regulated by the p38 and PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathways. Treatment with GDNF increased nuclear HIF-1α accumulation and its transcriptional activity in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, GDNF increased HRE-containing VEGF promoter transcriptional activity but not the HRE-deletion VEGF promoter construct. Inhibition of HIF-1α by a pharmacological inhibitor or dominant-negative mutant reduced the GDNF-induced migratory activity in human colon cancer cells. These results indicate that GDNF enhances the migration of colon cancer cells by increasing VEGF/VEGFR interaction, which is mainly regulated by the p38, PI3 kinase/Akt, and HIF-1α signaling pathways.Endocrine Related Cancer 10/2013; · 5.26 Impact Factor