Mechanisms of viral infections associated with HIV: workshop 2B.
ABSTRACT HIV infection is commonly associated with activation and dissemination of several other viral pathogens, including herpes simplex virus 1/2, human cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, Epstein-Barr virus, Varicella Zoster virus, and human papillomavirus, which behave as opportunistic agents and cause various diseases in immunocompromised hosts. The increased frequency and severity of diseases caused by these viruses in HIV-infected individuals is due mainly to dysfunction of both the adaptive and innate immune responses to viral pathogens. In addition, molecular interactions between HIV and these opportunistic viruses are likely to play critical roles in the progression of disease, including neoplasia. This report reviews the critical aspects of HIV interaction with opportunistic viruses, including Epstein-Barr virus, human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, Varicella Zoster virus, human herpesvirus 8, and human papillomavirus.
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ABSTRACT: Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted commonly by saliva, but it has been found in genital secretions, which suggests sexual transmission and led researchers to connect EBV and cervical neoplasia. People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are reported to be at high risk of acquiring genital infections and cervical lesions. To verify the presence of EBV in the genital tract and/or it could affect cervical changes, we analyzed cervical smears from 85 HIV seropositive women for EBV DNA determination. EBV was only detected in two (2.3%) samples. The present study provides neither evidence for EBV as sexually transmitted infection nor discards this possibility.Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 08/2011; 53(4):231-4. DOI:10.1590/S0036-46652011000400011 · 0.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: XMRV (xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus) is a gammaretrovirus first discovered in human prostate carcinomas and later linked to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Emerging conflicting data and lack of reproducibility of results within the scientific community has now led to the association of XMRV with CFS being discounted. Indeed the case for an involvement with any human disease has been questioned with the suggestion that XMRV is a laboratory generated recombinant virus. The fact that not all published positive findings can be easily explained as contamination artefacts coupled with the observation that XMRV may have a sexually transmitted mode of infectivity and can be infectious for primates, where it preferential resides in cells of the reproductive tract, prompted us to look for evidence of XMRV in the cervical cells of a cohort of Kenyan women both with and without pre-existing HIV/HPV infections. Using a highly sensitive and selective triplex PCR approach we analysed DNA from the liquid based cytology (LBC) cervical smears of 224 Kenyan women. There was no evidence of XMRV expression in any of the sample population irrespective of HPV and/or HIV status. The data presented show no indication of XMRV infection in any of the cervical samples screened in this study. Approximately 50% of the women were HIV positive but this did not influence the findings signifying that XMRV does not act as an opportunistic infection in this cohort nor is it related to HPV status. Our results therefore support the findings that XMRV is confined to the laboratory and does not currently represent an infectious agent for humans, with a cautionary adage that such potential zoonotic viruses should be carefully monitored in the future.PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e47208. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047208 · 3.53 Impact Factor