Assessing the activity of cediranib, a VEGFR-2/3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, against VEGFR-1 and members of the structurally related PDGFR family.
ABSTRACT Cediranib is a potent inhibitor of the VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 and VEGFR-3 tyrosine kinases. This study assessed the activity of cediranib against the VEGFR-1 tyrosine kinase and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-associated kinases c-Kit, PDGFR-α, and PDGFR-β. Cediranib inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated VEGFR-1 activation in AG1-G1-Flt1 cells (IC(50) = 1.2 nmol/L). VEGF-A induced greatest phosphorylation of VEGFR-1 at tyrosine residues Y1048 and Y1053; this was reversed by cediranib. Potency against VEGFR-1 was comparable with that previously observed versus VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. Cediranib also showed significant activity against wild-type c-Kit in cellular phosphorylation assays (IC(50) = 1-3 nmol/L) and in a stem cell factor-induced proliferation assay (IC(50) = 13 nmol/L). Furthermore, phosphorylation of wild-type c-Kit in NCI-H526 tumor xenografts was reduced markedly following oral administration of cediranib (≥1.5 mg/kg/d) to tumor-bearing nude mice. The activity of cediranib against PDGFR-β and PDGFR-α was studied in tumor cell lines, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and a fibroblast line using PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB ligands. Both receptor phosphorylation (IC(50) = 12-32 nmol/L) and PDGF-BB-stimulated cellular proliferation (IC(50) = 32 nmol/L in human VSMCs; 64 nmol/L in osteosarcoma cells) were inhibited. In vivo, ligand-induced PDGFR-β phosphorylation in murine lung tissue was inhibited by 55% following treatment with cediranib at 6 mg/kg but not at 3 mg/kg or less. In contrast, in C6 rat glial tumor xenografts in mice, ligand-induced phosphorylation of both PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β was reduced by 46% to 61% with 0.75 mg/kg cediranib. Additional selectivity was showed versus Flt-3, CSF-1R, EGFR, FGFR1, and FGFR4. Collectively, these data indicate that cediranib is a potent pan-VEGFR kinase inhibitor with similar activity against c-Kit but is significantly less potent than PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β.
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ABSTRACT: Detailed knowledge of the essential pro-angiogenic biomolecules, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and its receptors, in the characteristically heterogeneous tumor tissue is a pre-requisite for an effective personalized target therapy. The effects of VEGF receptors after ligand binding are mediated through receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation. We determined the relevance of the VEGFR-1 activating pathway for colon cancer (CC) metastasis. The expression profiles of VEGFR-1, phosphorylated (activated) VEGFR-1 (pVEGFR-1(Tyr1048), pVEGFR-1(Tyr1213) and pVEGFR-1(Tyr1333)) and the VEGFR-1 ligands (VEGF, PlGF and VEGF-B) were investigated using immunohistochemistry in different tumor compartments (intratumoral - invasive front - extratumoral), cell types (tumor cells - macro- (large and small vessels) and the microvasculature (capillaries) - inflammatory cells) in human sporadic non-metastatic, lymphogenous metastatic and haematogenous metastatic CC. VEGF and PlGF produced by tumor cells have an autocrine affinity for their receptor VEGFR-1. Subsequent PlGF-mediated receptor activation by autophosphorylation at Tyr1048 and Tyr1213 is a potential signaling pathway, which in turn seems to protect against distant metastasis and, in regions of tumor budding, additionally against lymph node metastasis. This autocrine link could be supported by possible formation of PlGF-VEGF heterodimers and PlGF-PlGF homodimers, which are known to have anti-metastatic properties. In contrast, in order to enhance their potential for distant metastasis tumor cells produce paracrine-acting VEGF-B. VEGFR-1 activation in tumor-associated macrovasculature but not capillaries appears to affect metastatic ability. Paracrine-mediated receptor autophosphorylation at Tyr1048 and Tyr1213 in small vessels located intratumorally and along the invasive front appears to be inversely correlated with metastasis, especially distant metastasis. Additionally, macrovessels are able to produce VEGFR-1 ligands, which influence the metastatic potential. Paracrine-acting VEGF-B production by intratumorally located small vessels and autocrine-acting PlGF production by extratumorally located small vessels seem to be associated with the non-metastatic phenotype. In contrast, VEGF-B-expressing extratumoral large and small vessels correlate with distant metastasis. Lymphocyte-associated VEGFR-1 expression in the invasive front without accompanying autophosphorylation could prevent against distant metastasis possibly by acting as a decoy and scavenger receptor. VEGFR-1 and its ligands participate in vascular, tumor cell-mediated and immuno-inflammatory processes in a complex biomolecule-dependent and tumor zone-specific manner and hence could influence metastatic behavior in CC.BMC Cancer 12/2015; 15(1):1130. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1130-3 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) targeted therapy has been explored for glioblastoma treatment. However, it is unclear which RTK inhibitors are the most effective and there are no predictive biomarkers available. We recently identified the RTK AXL as a putative target for the pan-RTK inhibitors cediranib and sunitinib, which are under clinical trials for glioblastoma patients. Here, we provide evidence that AXL activity can modulate sunitinib response in glioblastoma cell lines. We found that AXL knockdown conferred lower sensitivity to sunitinib by rescuing migratory defects and inhibiting apoptosis in cells expressing high AXL basal levels. Accordingly, overactivation of AXL by its ligand GAS6 rendered AXL positive glioblastoma cells more sensitive to sunitinib. AXL knockdown induced a cellular rewiring of several growth signaling pathways through activation of RTKs, such as EGFR, as well as intracellular pathways such as MAPK and AKT. The combination of sunitinib with a specific AKT inhibitor reverted the resistance of AXL-silenced cells to sunitinib. Together, our results suggest that sunitinib inhibits AXL and AXL activation status modulates therapy response of glioblastoma cells to sunitinib. Moreover, it indicates that combining sunitinib therapy with AKT pathway inhibitors could overcome sunitinib resistance.Experimental Cell Research 01/2015; 332(1). DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2015.01.009 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling mechanism within fibroblasts is of growing interest as it has been shown to prevent numerous fibrotic features of fibroblast activation with limited evidence of downstream pathways. In order to understand the mechanisms of fibroblasts producing tremendous amounts of PGE2 with autocrine effects, we apply a strategy of combining a wide-screening of PGE2-induced kinases with quantitative phosphoproteomics. Our large-scale proteomic approach identified a PKA signal transmitted through phosphorylation of its substrates harboring the R(R/X)X(S*/T*) motif. We documented 115 substrates, of which 72 had 89 sites with a 2.5-fold phosphorylation difference in PGE2 treated cells than in untreated cells, where approximately half of such sites were defined as being novel. They were compiled by networking software to focus on highlighted activities and to associate them with a functional readout of fibroblasts. The substrates were associated with a variety of cellular functions including cytoskeletal structures (migration/motility), regulators of G-protein coupled receptor function, protein kinases, and transcriptional/translational regulators. For the first time, we extended the PGE2 pathway into an elaborate network of interconnecting phosphoproteins, providing vital information to a once restricted signalosome. These data provide new insights into eicosanoid-initiated cell signaling with regards to the regulation of fibroblast activation and the identification of new targets for evidenced-based pharmacotherapy against fibrosis.Journal of Proteome Research 09/2014; 13(11). DOI:10.1021/pr500495s · 5.00 Impact Factor