Pompe disease: design, methodology, and early findings from the Pompe Registry.
ABSTRACT Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive, progressive, debilitating, and often fatal neuromuscular disorder caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid α-glucosidase (GAA). It is characterized by the accumulation of glycogen in muscle tissue that leads to progressive muscle weakness and loss of function. It presents as a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes, with varying rates of progression, symptom onset, degree of organ involvement, and severity. The Pompe Registry represents worldwide data collection on this rare and clinically heterogeneous disease. This report describes the design, methodology, and early findings from the Registry and presents an overview of the Registry population over a five-year period from its inception in September 2004 through September 2009. Among the 742 patients from 28 countries in the Registry, 70% (517/742) reported symptom onset >12 months of age and 23% (170/742) reported symptom onset ≤12 months of age. Seventy-eight percent (582/742) of registry patients have received enzyme replacement therapy. Overall, Registry data appear to be consistent with smaller natural history studies in terms of symptoms and disease course in classical infantile Pompe disease (≤12 months of age with cardiomyopathy) and late-onset Pompe disease (>12 months of age). In addition, a subset of patients with symptom onset ≤12 months of age do not have cardiomyopathy (14.7%); these patients appear to have a later age at first symptoms and diagnosis than their peers with cardiomyopathy. As the largest dataset on Pompe disease to date, the Pompe Registry will serve to improve recognition of the disease, enhance understanding of the variable disease course, and offer insights into treated and untreated disease course.
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ABSTRACT: Rationale: Pompe Disease results from a mutation in the acid alpha-glucosidase gene leading to lysosomal glycogen accumulation. Respiratory insufficiency is common and the current Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment, enzyme replacement, has limited effectiveness. Ampakines are drugs which enhance α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor responses and can increase respiratory motor drive. Recent work indicates that respiratory motor drive can be blunted in Pompe disease, and thus pharmacologic stimulation of breathing may be beneficial. Objectives: Using a murine Pompe model with the most severe clinical genotype (the (the Gaa-/- mouse), our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that ampakines can stimulate respiratory motor output and increase ventilation. Our second objective was to confirm that neuropathology was present in Pompe mouse medullary respiratory control neurons. Methods: The impact of ampakine CX717 on breathing was determined via phrenic and hypoglossal nerve recordings in anesthetized mice, and whole body plethysmography in unanesthetized mice. The medulla was examined using standard histological methods coupled with immunochemical markers of respiratory control neurons. Measurements and Main Results: Ampakine CX717 robustly increased phrenic and hypoglossal inspiratory bursting and reduced respiratory cycle variability in anesthetized Pompe mice, and increased inspiratory tidal volume in unanesthetized Pompe mice. CX717 did not significantly alter these variables in wild-type mice. Medullary respiratory neurons showed extensive histopathology in Pompe mice. Conclusions: Ampakines stimulate respiratory neuromotor output and ventilation in Pompe mice and therefore have potential as an adjunctive therapy in Pompe disease.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 01/2015; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gene therapy strategies for congenital myopathies may require repeat administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors due to aspects of the clinical application, such as: (i) administration of doses below therapeutic efficacy in patients enrolled in early phase clinical trials; (ii) progressive reduction of the therapeutic gene expression over time as a result of increasing muscle mass in patients treated at a young age; and (iii) a possibly faster depletion of pathogenic myofibers in this patient population. Immune response triggered by the first vector administration, and to subsequent doses, represents a major obstacle for successful gene transfer in young patients. Anti-capsid and anti-transgene product related humoral and cell-mediated responses have been previously observed in all preclinical models and human subjects who received gene therapy or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for congenital myopathies. Immune responses may result in reduced efficacy of the gene transfer over time and/or may preclude for the possibility of re-administration of the same vector. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of a Pompe patient dosed with an AAV1-GAA vector after receiving Rituximab and Sirolimus to modulate reactions against ERT. A key finding of this single subject case report is the observation that B-cell ablation with rituximab prior to AAV vector exposure results in non-responsiveness to both capsid and transgene, therefore allowing the possibility of repeat administration in the future. This observation is significant for future gene therapy studies and establishes a clinically relevant approach to blocking immune responses to AAV vectors.Molecular Therapy — Methods & Clinical Development. 08/2014; 1:14033.
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ABSTRACT: Pompe disease is a systemic metabolic disorder characterized by lack of acid-alpha glucosidase (GAA) resulting in ubiquitous lysosomal glycogen accumulation. Respiratory and ambulatory dysfunction are prominent features in patients with Pompe yet the mechanism defining the development of muscle weakness is currently unclear. Transgenic animal models of Pompe disease mirroring the patient phenotype have been invaluable in mechanistic and therapeutic study. Here, we demonstrate significant pathological alterations at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of the diaphragm and tibialis anterior muscle as prominent features of disease pathology in Gaa knockout mice. Post-synaptic defects including increased motor endplate area and fragmentation were readily observed in Gaa(-/-) but not wild type mice. Presynaptic neuropathic changes were also evident, as demonstrated by significant reduction in the levels of neurofilament proteins, and alterations in axonal fiber diameter and myelin thickness within the sciatic and phrenic nerves. Our data suggest the loss of NMJ integrity is a primary contributor to the decline in respiratory and ambulatory function in Pompe and arises from both pre- and post-synaptic pathology. These observations highlight the importance of systemic phenotype correction, specifically restoration of GAA to skeletal muscle and the nervous system for treatment of Pompe disease.Human Molecular Genetics 09/2014; 24(3). · 6.68 Impact Factor