Torsion deformity and joint loading for medial knee osteoarthritis.
ABSTRACT The consequences of lower limb torsion deformity on knee loading in knee osteoarthritis are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to quantify the associations between the mechanical axis, tibial torsion and knee loading in subjects with medial knee OA and in controls.
Twenty-four subjects: end-staged medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) with apparent torsion deformity (TKO, n=6) and without torsion deformity (KOA, n=8) and controls (CON, n=10) were imaged using long standing lower extremity (LSLE) radiographs and computed tomography (CT). Medial knee loading was assessed using the internal knee varus moment determined by gait analysis. The LSLE mechanical axis, CT tibial torsion and the foot progression angle were used to predict medial knee loading.
The TKOs had significantly greater mechanical axis varus and knee varus moment compared to KOAs and CONs. The regression model predicting medial knee loading using the mechanical axis (β=0.898), tibial torsion (β=0.264) and foot progression angle (β=-0.369) showed a goodness of fit of 0.774.
Medial knee loading was predicted by the mechanical axis and the foot progression angle. Future longitudinal studies are needed to assess the role of tibial intorsion during disease progression and following total knee replacement surgery.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lower limb torsion disorders have been considered as a factor inducing gonarthrosis and the three-dimensional effect of the surgical correction is not well reported yet. This paper reports an in vitro study aiming at quantifying the relationships between experimental femoral torsion disorders and moment arms of thigh muscles. METHODS: Five unembalmed lower limbs were used and fixed on an experimental jig. Muscles were loaded and 6 Linear Variable Differential Transformers were used to measure tendon excursions. Experimental osteotomies were performed to simulate torsions by steps of 6° up to 18°. Moment arms of the main thigh muscles were estimated by the tendon excursion method during knee flexion. FINDINGS: Moment arms of the tensor of fascia latae, the gracilis and the semitendinosus were significantly influenced by experimental conditions while the rectus femoris, the biceps femoris and the semimembranosus did not show modifications. Medial femoral torsion decreased the moment arm of both the gracilis and the semimembranosus. Opposite changes were observed during lateral femoral torsion. The moment arm of the tensor of fascia latae decreased significantly after 30° of knee flexion for 18° of medial femoral torsion. INTERPRETATION: Our results showed that medial and lateral femoral torsion disorders induced alterations of the moment arms of the muscles located medially to the knee joint when applied in aligned lower limbs. These results highlight a potential clinical relevance of the effect of femoral torsion alterations on moment arms of muscles of the thigh which may be related, with knee kinematics modifications, to the development of long-term knee disease.Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 01/2013; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gonarthrosis is a degenerative disease mainly found in elderly persons. Frontal plane deviations are known to induce lateral and medial gonarthrosis. Nevertheless, patients suffer from gonarthrosis without frontal deviations. Lower limb torsions disorders have been considered as a factor inducing lateral and medial gonarthrosis. This paper reports an in vitro study aiming at quantifying the relationships between experimental femoral torsion disorders and femoro-tibial kinematics. METHODS: Five fresh-frozen lower limbs were used. Specimens were fixed on an experimental jig and muscles were loaded. A six-degree-of-freedom Instrumented Spatial Linkage was used to measure femoro-tibial kinematics. Experimental femoral osteotomies were performed to simulate various degrees of medial and lateral torsion. Internal tibial rotation, abduction/adduction and proximo-distal, medio-lateral and antero-posterior translations were measured during knee flexion. FINDINGS: Internal tibial rotation and abduction/adduction were significantly influenced (P<0.001) by femoral torsion disorder conditions. Medial femoral torsion increased tibial adduction and decreased internal rotation during knee flexion. Opposite changes were observed during lateral femoral torsion. Concerning translations, medial femoral torsion induced a significant (P<0.05) decrease of medial translation and inversely for lateral femoral torsion. No interactions between femoral torsion disorders and range of motion were observed. INTERPRETATION: Our results showed that medial and lateral femoral torsion disorders induced alterations of femoro-tibial kinematics when applied in normally aligned lower limbs. These results highlight a potential clinical relevance of the effect of femoral torsion alterations on knee kinematics that may be related to the development of long-term knee disease.Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 09/2012; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Varus knee alignment has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study tested the hypothesis that not only frontal plane kinematics and kinetics but also transverse plane lower extremity mechanics during gait are affected by varus malalignment of the knee. Methods: Eighteen, otherwise healthy children and adolescents with varus malalignment of the knee were studied to examine the association between static varus malalignment and functional gait parameters. Kinematic data were collected using a Vicon motion capture system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). Two AMTI force plates (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA) were used to collect kinetic data. Results: The results indicated that changes in transverse plane mechanics occur concomitantly with changes in knee malalignment in the frontal plane. A mechanical consequence of varus knee malalignment is obviously an increased endorotation of the foot (internal foot placement) and an increased internal knee rotation (tibia rotation) during stance phase. The linear correlation between the maximum external knee adduction moment in terminal stance and the internal knee rotation in terminal stance (r= 0.823, p<0.001) shows that this transverse plane gait mechanics is directly in conjunction with intrinsic compressive load on the medial compartment during gait. Conclusions: Understanding factors that influence dynamic knee joint loading in healthy, varus malaligned knees may help us to identify risk factors that lead to OA. Thus, three-dimensional gait analysis could be used for clinical prognoses regarding the onset or progression of medial knee OA.The Knee 06/2014; 21(3):688-693. · 2.01 Impact Factor