Invited commentary.

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in abdominal, vascular, and urological surgery. We conducted meta-analyses of case series and placebo-controlled studies reporting on the treatment or prophylaxis of bleeding with rFVIIa regarding 'reduction or cessation of bleeding', 'mortality', and 'thromboembolism'. All case reports (n = 15 case reports and 17 patients) documented an effect of rFVIIa in the treatment of bleeding. A meta-analysis of 10 case series revealed a reduction or cessation of bleeding in 39 out of 50 patients after administration of rFVIIa (estimated mean effect 73.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 51.0% to 95.4%) and a mean probability of survival of 53.0% (95% CI 26.4% to 79.7%). Among the rFVIIa responders, 19 out of 29 patients (66%) survived versus 1 out of 10 rFVIIa nonresponders (P = 0.003). Six out of 36 patients from the case series had a thromboembolic complication (estimated mean probability 16.5%, 95% CI 1.2% to 31.8%). Compared with a meta-analysis of eight placebo-controlled studies, no increased risk of thromboembolism was seen after administration of rFVIIa. The meta-analysis of case series showed that, in a mean of 73% patients, rFVIIa achieved at least a reduction of bleeding and that the probability of survival is increased in patients responding to rFVIIa. rFVIIa was not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism compared with placebo.
    Critical care (London, England) 02/2008; 12(1):R14. DOI:10.1186/cc6788
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    ABSTRACT: Benefits of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in hemorrhage may be lost because of thromboembolic events (TAE). MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, CINAHL, Science Citation Index Expanded, were searched for placebo controlled trials of rFVIIa in patients without hemophilia. Reports of 22 randomized controlled trials were selected for analysis. Results were pooled using random effects models to calculate the odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were predetermined. Among 3184 participants, 478 (15.0%) died and 249 (7.8%) had TAE. Additional blood transfusion was required in 517 (41.2%) of 1256 subjects. Patients receiving rFVIIa were less likely to need additional blood transfusions (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.86) than patients receiving placebo. Mortality was not increased but may be reduced (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.71-1.09). Reduction in mortality was more likely if rFVIIa was given therapeutically (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.70-1.09) rather than prophylactically (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.37-2.68). Differences in the pooled analysis of TAE were not statistically significant (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.87-1.58) but the incidence of arterial TAE was likely higher in patients receiving rFVIIa (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.93-2.41) although no differences were seen with respect to venous TAE (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.49-1.15). Use of rFVIIa reduces the need for blood transfusion and it may reduce mortality, especially if the dose of rFVIIa is limited to therapeutic doses of 90 mug/kg. It does not increase the risk of venous thrombosis but it may increase the risk of arterial thrombosis.
    Annals of surgery 08/2008; 248(1):61-8. DOI:10.1097/SLA.0b013e318176c4ec · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed recombinant human coagulation factor VIIa (rFVIIa) on March 25, 1999, for bleeding in patients with hemophilia A or B and inhibitors to factors VIII or IX. Use in patients without hemophilia has been increasing since licensure. To review serious thromboembolic adverse events (AEs) reported to the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). The AERS database was reviewed from March 25, 1999, through December 31, 2004, for thromboembolic AE reports with rFVIIa. The AERS database includes US and non-US spontaneous AE reports from both approved (specific indications for patients with hemophilia) and unlabeled uses. It also includes serious AEs in patients enrolled in postlicensure clinical trials who received rFVIIa. Manufacturer reporting to FDA is mandatory, but primary notification from clinicians and others to FDA or manufacturers is voluntary for spontaneous reports; therefore, AERS underrepresents actual event occurrences. Reported thromboembolic events occurring in patients administered rFVIIa. A total of 431 AE reports for rFVIIa were found, of which 168 reports described 185 thromboembolic events. Seventeen events occurred in patients with hemophilia and 59 occurred in patients enrolled in postlicensure trials. Unlabeled indications accounted for 151 of the reports, most with active bleeding (n = 115). Reported AEs were thromboembolic cerebrovascular accident (n = 39), acute myocardial infarction (n = 34), other arterial thromboses (n = 26), pulmonary embolism (n = 32), other venous thromboses (including deep vein thrombosis) (n = 42), and clotted devices (n = 10). In 36 (72%) of 50 reported deaths, the probable cause of death was the thromboembolic event. In 144 patients with timing information, 73 events (52%) occurred in the first 24 hours after the last dose (30 events within 2 hours). Sixty-four reports (38%) noted concomitant use of hemostatic agents. Most reports lacked sufficient information to evaluate potential dosage associations. Most reported thromboembolic AEs followed the use of rFVIIa for unlabeled indications and occurred in arterial and venous systems, often resulting in serious morbidity and mortality. Analysis of the relationship between AEs and rFVIIa is hindered by concomitant medications, preexisting medical conditions, confounding by indication, and inherent limitations of passive surveillance. Randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the safety and efficacy of rFVIIa in patients without hemophilia.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2006; 295(3):293-8. DOI:10.1001/jama.295.3.293 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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