A number of clinical trials have been done to investigate the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a potential therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Most of the data testing this comes from trials of the humanized anti Il-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab. Results from clinical trials worldwide have been promising so far. Additional study will define the ultimate role of tocilizumab and Il6 inhibitors in the treatment paradigms for RA and JIA.
"Macrophage activation has been determined to perform an important role in the inflammatory process (Adamson and Leitinger, 2011; Beutler, 2000) and to generate potent pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, which induce inflammation and recruit other immune cells (Bunikowski et al., 2001). Although TNF-α and IL-6 are beneficial to host defenses , they can also trigger pathological conditions when expressed in excess quantities (Mircic and Kavanaugh, 2011). Additionally, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines have also been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease (Guerreiro et al., 2009; Moudgil and Choubey, 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Igongsan (IGS), which is an herbal prescription composed of five different herbs, Ginseng Radix (root of Panax ginseng, Araliaceae), Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba (rhizome of Atractylodes Macrocephala, Compositae), Poria Sclerotium (sclerotium of Poria cocos, Polyporaceae), Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (root and rhizome of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Leguminosae), and Citri Unshius Pericarpium (Peel of Citrus unshiu, Rutaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated to elucidate the mechanism responsible for IGS's antiinflammatory effect in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The findings demonstrate that IGS inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandins E2 . IGS inhibited the enhanced levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, it was shown that the antiinflammatory effect of IGS is through regulating the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and caspase-1 in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. These results provide novel insights into the pharmacological actions of IGS as a potential candidate for development of new drugs to treat inflammatory diseases.
Discussion and conclusion:
These results provide novel insights into the pharmacological actions of IGS as a potential candidate for development of new drugs to treat inflammatory diseases.
Phytotherapy Research 05/2014; 28(5). DOI:10.1002/ptr.5058 · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease or osteoarthrosis, is the most common form of arthritis. OA occurs when cartilage in the joints wears down over time. We used the GSE1919 series to identify potential genes that correlated to OA. The aim of our study was to obtain a molecular signature of OA through the regulation network based on differentially expressed genes. From the result of regulation network construction in OA, a number of transcription factors (TFs) and pathways closely related to OA were linked by our method. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ also arises as hub nodes in our transcriptome network and certain TFs containing CEBPD, EGR2 and ETS2 were shown to be related to OA by a previous study.
Molecular Medicine Reports 09/2011; 5(1):177-83. DOI:10.3892/mmr.2011.595 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High levels of cytokines in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can alter target cell sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) leading to short stature in adulthood. We hypothesized that the down-regulation of GH receptor (GHR) gene expression could be involved in growth failure of children with JIA.
In 18 (12 F and 6 M) prepubertal JIA patients and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy children, we evaluated serum growth-promoting factors and inflammatory indexes. We also measured GHR gene expression, by real-time PCR, in lymphocytes of patients and controls. All parameters were evaluated in patients before and after treatment of JIA.
The most interesting (p = 0.007) result was the increase in GHR mRNA expression in all JIA patients. Moreover, we observed a significant (p = 0.0156) decrease in IL-6 levels in JIA patients after 2 years of therapy (19.37 ± 41.01) with respect to basal values (90.84 ± 124.71). On the contrary, IGF-I significantly (p = 0.0005) increased to a mean SDS value of 0 (range -1.69 to +1.70 SDS) with respect to values at disease onset (-0.64 SDS).
Our preliminary data suggest that the restoration of both GHR gene expression and IGF-I secretion correlate with inactive disease in JIA children.
Hormone Research in Paediatrics 12/2011; 77(1):52-8. DOI:10.1159/000334646 · 1.57 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.