Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Coverage Among Pregnant Women: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System

Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724, USA.
Journal of Women's Health (Impact Factor: 1.9). 03/2011; 20(5):649-51. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2011.2794
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have recommended that pregnant women receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, regardless of pregnancy trimester, because of their increased risk for severe complications from influenza. However, the uptake of the influenza vaccine by pregnant women has been low. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, pregnant women were identified as a priority population to receive the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (2009 H1N1) monovalent vaccine in addition to the seasonal influenza vaccine. In this issue, we highlight information from the 10 states that collected data using the survey administered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) about seasonal vaccine coverage among women with recent live births and reasons for those who chose not to get vaccinated. The combined estimates from PRAMS of influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009-2010 season, which included data from October 2009 to March 2010, from 10 states were 50.7% for seasonal and 46.6% for 2009 H1N1 vaccine among women with recent live births. Among women who did not get vaccinated, reasons varied from worries about the safety of the vaccines for self and baby to not normally getting the vaccination. Further evaluation is needed on ways to increase influenza vaccination among pregnant women, effectively communicate the risk of influenza illness during pregnancy, and address women's concerns about influenza vaccination safety during pregnancy.

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Available from: Sonja Rasmussen, Aug 13, 2015
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    • "An estimated 11.3% of pregnant women were vaccinated in the 2008–2009 flu season [109]. Reflecting substantial public health efforts during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic, 46.6% and 50.7% of pregnant women received seasonal and 2009 H1N1 vaccine, respectively [110]. In subsequent seasons, this increase in coverage has generally been sustained, but has not improved further [111] [112] [113] [114]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnant women and infants are at high risk for complications, hospitalization, and death due to influenza. It is well-established that influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces rates and severity of illness in women overall. Maternal vaccination also confers antibody protection to infants via both transplacental transfer and breast milk. However, as in the general population, a relatively high proportion of pregnant women and their infants do not achieve protective antibody levels against influenza virus following maternal vaccination. Behavioral factors, particularly maternal weight and stress exposure, may affect initial maternal antibody responses, maintenance of antibody levels over time (i.e., across pregnancy), as well as the efficiency of transplacental antibody transfer to the fetus. Conversely, behavioral interventions including acute exercise and stress reduction can enhance immune protection following vaccination. Such behavioral interventions are particularly appealing in pregnancy because they are safe and non-invasive. The identification of individual risk factors for poor responses to vaccines and the application of appropriate interventions represent important steps towards personalized health care.
    Vaccine 04/2014; 32(25). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03.075 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    • "The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that pregnant women (and women who expect to be pregnant during the influenza season) receive the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination [1] [2]. Yet, vaccination rates among Hispanic and Black/African–American pregnant women are significantly lower than those of whites despite persistently higher rates of morbidity, mortality, and hospitalizations due to influenza [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A suboptimal level of seasonal influenza vaccination among pregnant minority women is an intractable public health problem, requiring effective message resonance with this population. We evaluated the effects of randomized exposure to messages which emphasize positive outcomes of vaccination ("gain-frame"), or messages which emphasize negative outcomes of forgoing vaccination ("loss-frame"). We also assessed multilevel social and community factors that influence maternal immunization among racially and ethnically diverse populations. Minority pregnant women in metropolitan Atlanta were enrolled in the longitudinal study and randomized to receive intervention or control messages. A postpartum questionnaire administered 30 days postpartum evaluated immunization outcomes following baseline message exposure among the study population. We evaluated key outcomes using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Neither gain- [OR=0.5176, (95% CI: 0.203,1.322)] nor loss-framed [OR=0.5000, 95% CI: (0.192,1.304)] messages were significantly associated with increased likelihood of immunization during pregnancy. Significant correlates of seasonal influenza immunization during pregnancy included healthcare provider recommendation [OR=3.934, 95% CI: (1.331,11.627)], use of hospital-based practices as primary source of prenatal care [OR=2.584, 95% CI: (1.091,6.122)], and perceived interpersonal support for influenza immunization [OR=3.405, 95% CI: (1.412,8.212)]. Dissemination of vaccine education messages via healthcare providers, and cultivating support from social networks, will improve seasonal influenza immunization among pregnant minority women.
    Vaccine 01/2014; 32(15). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.01.030 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza is often regarded as an illness of the elderly portion of the population because most of the excess mortality associated with influenza epidemics occurs in that age group. However, evidence derived from a large number of clinical studies carried out in different countries and various settings has clearly demonstrated that the burden of influenza is also substantial in children. The attack rates of influenza during annual epidemics are consistently highest in children, and young children are hospitalized for influenza-related illnesses at rates comparable to those for adults with high-risk conditions. Especially among children younger than 3 years of age, influenza frequently predisposes the patient to bacterial complications such as acute otitis media. Children also serve as the main transmitters of influenza in the community. A safe and effective vaccine against influenza has been available for decades, but the vaccine is rarely used even for children with high-risk conditions. Despite several existing problems related to influenza vaccination of children, the current evidence indicates that the advantages of vaccinating young children would clearly outweigh the disadvantages. Considering the total burden of influenza in children, children younger than 3 years of age should be regarded as a high-risk group for influenza, analogously with the age-based definition of high risk among persons 65 years of age or older. Annual influenza vaccination should be recommended to all children from 6 months to 3 years of age.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 05/2006; 165(4):223-8. DOI:10.1007/s00431-005-0040-9 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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