The unusual protoplanetary disk around the T Tauri star ET Cha

Source: arXiv

ABSTRACT We present new continuum and line observations, along with modelling, of the
faint (6-8) Myr old T Tauri star ET Cha belonging to the eta Chamaeleontis
cluster. We have acquired HERSCHEL/PACS photometric fluxes at 70 mic and 160
mic, as well as a detection of the [OI] 63 mic fine-structure line in emission,
and derived upper limits for some other far-IR OI, CII, CO and o-H2O lines. The
HERSCHEL data is complemented by new ANDICAM B-K photometry, new HST/COS and
HST/STIS UV-observations, a non-detection of CO J=3-2 with APEX, re-analysis of
a UCLES high-resolution optical spectrum showing forbidden emission lines like
[OI] 6300A, [SII] 6731A and 6716A, and [NII] 6583A, and a compilation of
existing broad-band photometric data. We used the thermo-chemical disk code
ProDiMo and the Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code MCFOST to model the
protoplanetary disk around ET Cha. Based on these models we can determine the
disk dust mass Mdust = (2.E-8 - 5.E-8) Msun, whereas the total disk gas mass is
found to be only little constrained, Mgas = (5.E-5 - 3.E-3) Msun. In the
models, the disk extends from 0.022 AU (just outside of the co-rotation radius)
to only about 10 AU. Larger disks are found to be inconsistent with the CO
J=3-2 non-detection. The low velocity component of the [OI] 6300A emission line
is consistent with being emitted from the inner disk. The model can also
reproduce the line flux of H2 v=1-0 S(1) at 2.122 mic. An additional
high-velocity component of the [OI] 6300A emission line, however, points to the
existence of an additional jet/outflow of low velocity (40 - 65) km/s with mass
loss rate ~1.E-9 Msun/yr. In relation to our low estimations of the disk mass,
such a mass loss rate suggests a disk lifetime of only ~(0.05 - 3) Myr,
substantially shorter than the cluster age. The evolutionary state of this
unusual protoplanetary disk is discussed.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed study of rotation and differential rotation analyzing high resolution high $S/N$ spectra of 142 F-, G- and early K-type field stars. Using Least Squares Deconvolution we obtain broadening profiles for our sample stars and use the Fourier transform method to determine projected rotational velocities $v\,\sin{i}$. Distributions of rotational velocities and periods are studied in the HR-diagram. For a subsample of 32 stars of spectral type F0–G0 we derive the amount of differential rotation in terms of $\alpha = (\Omega_{\rm Equator} - \Omega_{\rm Pole})/\Omega_{\rm Equator}$. We find evidence for differential rotation in ten of the 32 stars. Differential rotation seems to be more common in slower rotators, but deviations from rigid rotation are also found in some fast rotators. We search for correlations between differential rotation and parameters relevant for stellar activity and show indications against strong differential rotation in very active stars. We derive values of $\Delta P$ and $\Delta \Omega$, which support a period dependence of differential rotation. Derived lap times $2\pi/\Delta \Omega$ are of the order of 20 d and contradict the assumption that constant lap times of the order of the solar one ($\sim $130 d) are the rule in stars that are thought to harbour magnetic dynamos. 01/2003;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has recently been suggested that the winds from Classical T Tauri stars in general, and the wind from TW Hya in particular, reaches temperatures of at least 300,000 K while maintaing a mass loss rate of $\sim 10^{-11}$ \Msol yr$^{-1}$ or larger. If confirmed, this would place strong new requirements on wind launching and heating models. We therefore re-examine spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope and spectra from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite in an effort to better constrain the maximum temperature in the wind of TW Hya. We find clear evidence for a wind in the \ion{C}{2} doublet at 1037 \AA and in the \ion{C}{2} multiplet at 1335 \AA. We find no wind absorption in the \ion{C}{4} 1550 \AA doublet observed at the same time as the \ion{C}{2} 1335 \AA line or in observations of \ion{O}{6} observed simultaneously with the \ion{C}{2} 1037 \AA line. The presence or absence of \ion{C}{3} wind absorption is ambiguous. The clear lack of a wind in the \ion{C}{4} line argues that the wind from TW Hya does not reach the 100,000 K characteristic formation temperature of this line. We therefore argue that the available evidence suggests that the wind from TW Hya, and probably all classical T Tauri stars, reaches a maximum temperature in the range of 10,000 -- 30,000 K.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2006; · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present Infrared Spectrograph spectra and revised Multiband Imaging Photometer photometry for the 18 members of the eta Chamaeleontis cluster. Aged 8 Myr, the eta Cha cluster is one of the few nearby regions within the 5-10 Myr age range, during which the disk fraction decreases dramatically and giant planet formation must come to an end. For the 15 low-mass members, we measure a disk fraction ~50%, high for their 8 Myr age, and four of the eight disks lack near-IR excesses, consistent with the empirical definition of "transition" disks. Most of the disks are comparable to geometrically flat disks. The comparison with regions of different ages suggests that at least some of the "transition" disks may represent the normal type of disk around low-mass stars. Therefore, their flattened structure and inner holes may be related to other factors (initial masses of the disk and the star, environment, binarity), rather than to pure time evolution. We analyze the silicate dust in the disk atmosphere, finding moderate crystalline fractions (~10%-30%) and typical grain sizes ~1-3 mum, without any characteristic trend in the composition. These results are common to other regions of different ages, suggesting that the initial grain processing occurs very early in the disk lifetime (<1 Myr). Large grain sizes in the disk atmosphere cannot be used as a proxy for age, but are likely related to higher disk turbulence. The dust mineralogy varies between the 8-12 mum and the 20-30 mum features, suggesting high temperature dust processing and little radial mixing. Finally, the analysis of IR and optical data on the B9 star eta Cha reveals that it is probably surrounded by a young debris disk with a large inner hole, instead of being a classical Be star.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2009; · 6.73 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 15, 2014