Copy Number Alterations and Methylation in Ewing's Sarcoma

Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.
Sarcoma 03/2011; 2011(3):362173. DOI: 10.1155/2011/362173
Source: PubMed


Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy affecting children and young adults. The prognosis is especially poor in metastatic or relapsed disease. The cell of origin remains elusive, but the EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein is present in the majority of cases. The understanding of the molecular basis of Ewing's sarcoma continues to progress slowly. EWS-FLI1 affects gene expression, but other factors must also be at work such as mutations, gene copy number alterations, and promoter methylation. This paper explores in depth two molecular aspects of Ewing's sarcoma: copy number alterations (CNAs) and methylation. While CNAs consistently have been reported in Ewing's sarcoma, their clinical significance has been variable, most likely due to small sample size and tumor heterogeneity. Methylation is thought to be important in oncogenesis and balanced karyotype cancers such as Ewing's, yet it has received only minimal attention in prior studies. Future CNA and methylation studies will help to understand the molecular basis of this disease.

Download full-text


Available from: Kevin B Jones,
32 Reads
  • Source
    • "Newer technologies, such as copy number analysis, rendering more detailed analysis of the genome than is possible with traditional cytogenetics, have been used to also look at genomic imbalances beyond translocation status in these tumors. As cancer genomes become more unstable, the number of copy number aberrations (CNA) increases (Jahromi et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most common bone tumor affecting primarily adolescents and young adults. Despite recent advances in biological understanding, intensification of chemotherapeutic treatments, and progress in local control with surgery and/or radiation therapy, patients with metastatic or recurrent ES continue to have a dismal prognosis with less than 20% overall survival. All ES is likely metastatic at diagnosis although our methods of detection and classification may not account for this. Progressive disease may arise via a combination of: (1) selection of chemotherapy-resistant clones in primary tumor, (2) signaling from bone or lung microenvironments that may attract tumor cells to distant locations, and/or (3) genetic changes within the ES cells themselves due to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents or other "hits." These possibilities and the evidence base to support them are explored.
    Frontiers in Oncology 01/2012; 2:2. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2012.00002
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have long served as useful models for the study of oxidative stress, an event associated with cell death and severe human pathologies. This review will discuss oxidative stress in yeast, in terms of sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their molecular targets, and the metabolic responses elicited by cellular ROS accumulation. Responses of yeast to accumulated ROS include upregulation of antioxidants mediated by complex transcriptional changes, activation of pro-survival pathways such as mitophagy, and programmed cell death (PCD) which, apart from apoptosis, includes pathways such as autophagy and necrosis, a form of cell death long considered accidental and uncoordinated. The role of ROS in yeast aging will also be discussed.
    Frontiers in Oncology 06/2012; 2:64. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2012.00064
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most common bone tumor in children and young adults, with dismal outcomes for metastatic and relapsed disease. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of ES and to identify new prognostic markers, we used molecular inversion probes (MIPs) to evaluate copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, which included 40 ES primary tumors and 12 ES metastatic lesions. CNAs were correlated with clinical features and outcome, and validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We identified previously reported CNAs, in addition to SMARCB1 (INI1/SNF5) homozygous loss and copy neutral LOH. IHC confirmed SMARCB1 protein loss in 7-10% of clinically diagnosed ES tumors in three separate cohorts (University of Utah [N = 40], Children's Oncology Group [N = 31], and University of Michigan [N = 55]). A multifactor copy number (MCN)-index was highly predictive of overall survival (39% vs. 100%, P < 0.001). We also identified RELN gene deletions unique to 25% of ES metastatic samples. In summary, we identified both known and novel CNAs using MIP technology for the first time in FFPE samples from patients with ES. CNAs detected by microarray correlate with outcome and may be useful for risk stratification in future clinical trials.
    Cancer Genetics 07/2012; 205(7-8):391-404. DOI:10.1016/j.cancergen.2012.05.012 · 2.98 Impact Factor
Show more