Histopathology after endolymphatic sac surgery for Ménière's syndrome.

Massachusetts Eye and Ear and Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology (Impact Factor: 1.44). 03/2011; 32(4):660-4. DOI: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e31821553ce
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The putative goal of sac surgery in Ménière's syndrome is to promote the flow of endolymph from the labyrinth to the endolymphatic sac and thereby relieving hydrops. There are scant published histopathologic data whether sac surgery actually accomplishes this goal.
To determine whether sac surgery relieves hydrops by examining the histopathologic changes in temporal bones obtained from individuals who had undergone sac surgery during life for Ménière's syndrome.
Temporal bones were examined from 15 patients who had sac surgery. Data on the presence and severity of hydrops, histology of the sac, and whether the procedure relieved vertigo were collected.
The surgery failed to expose the sac in 5 cases; 4 of the 5 had relief from vertigo. The sac was exposed, but the shunt failed to reach the lumen of the sac in 8 cases; 4 of the 8 had relief from vertigo. The shunt was successfully placed within the lumen of the sac in 2 cases; both cases failed to experience relief from vertigo. Endolymphatic hydrops was present in all 15 cases.
Endolymphatic sac surgery does not relieve hydrops in patients with Ménière's syndrome. Yet, sac surgery relieves vertigo in some patients, but the mechanism of such symptomatic relief remains unknown.

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    ABSTRACT: The indications for surgical treatment of labyrinthine vertigo associated with severe impairment and a lack of response to medication are heterogeneous. Due to different therapeutic goals and success parameters, the results of treatments can only be compared to a limited extent. This overview of the current literature and procedures performed by the author contains recommendations for indications and outlines the risks associated with operative therapy of vestibular vertigo. Results of function-preserving and ablative therapies are compared. Surgical treatment of Menière's syndrome (non-idiopathic) using tympanostomy tubes is indicated in cases of increased middle ear pressure; Meniere's disease (idiopathic) in its early stages can be treated with the endolymphatic shunt operation to preserve hearing and balance functions and where these techniques fail, with vestibular neurectomy for preservation of hearing or with cochleosacculotomy in the case of deafness. Rare indications are intractable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS). The function preservation success rate in cases of Meniere's syndrome and disease is 70-88 %, ablative procedures are effective in > 90 % of cases and occlusion of the superior or posterior canals is successful in > 95 % of patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Conclusion: Endolymphatic hydrops could be a reversible inner ear pathological condition. After sac surgery, hydrops was reduced and symptoms went into remission in some cases, although vertigo suppression was not always a result of the reduced hydrops. Objective: To examine the changes in endolymphatic hydrops detected by gadolinium (Gd) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 6 months after endolymphatic sac surgery in patients with unilateral Ménière's disease. Methods: Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI was obtained 4 h after intravenous administration or 24 h after intratympanic administration of Gd contrast medium. An enlarged negative stain corresponding to the cochlear duct and endolymphatic space of the vestibule was assessed as hydrops. Results: Of seven patients with hydrops confirmed by MRI before surgery, both cochlear and vestibular hydrops became negative in two, cochlear hydrops became negative in one, both hydrops were present, but reduced, in one, and there was no change in three patients. The number of vertigo spells was reduced in all cases at 6-12 months after surgery. As for the three cases of negative hydrops, vertigo was completely suppressed. In two cases in which hearing level improved, hydrops became negative after surgery.
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