Serine proteases mediate inflammatory pain in acute pancreatitis
ABSTRACT Acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening inflammatory disease characterized by abdominal pain of unknown etiology. Trypsin, a key mediator of pancreatitis, causes inflammation and pain by activating protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2)), but the isoforms of trypsin that cause pancreatitis and pancreatic pain are unknown. We hypothesized that human trypsin IV and rat P23, which activate PAR(2) and are resistant to pancreatic trypsin inhibitors, contribute to pancreatic inflammation and pain. Injections of a subinflammatory dose of exogenous trypsin increased c-Fos immunoreactivity, indicative of spinal nociceptive activation, but did not cause inflammation, as assessed by measuring serum amylase and myeloperoxidase activity and by histology. The same dose of trypsin IV and P23 increased some inflammatory end points and caused a more robust effect on nociception, which was blocked by melagatran, a trypsin inhibitor that also inhibits polypeptide-resistant trypsin isoforms. To determine the contribution of endogenous activation of trypsin and its minor isoforms, recombinant enterokinase (ENK), which activates trypsins in the duodenum, was administered into the pancreas. Intraductal ENK caused nociception and inflammation that were diminished by polypeptide inhibitors, including soybean trypsin inhibitor and a specific trypsin inhibitor (type I-P), and by melagatran. Finally, the secretagogue cerulein induced pancreatic nociceptive activation and nocifensive behavior that were reversed by melagatran. Thus trypsin and its minor isoforms mediate pancreatic pain and inflammation. In particular, the inhibitor-resistant isoforms trypsin IV and P23 may be important in mediating prolonged pancreatic inflammatory pain in pancreatitis. Our results suggest that inhibitors of these isoforms could be novel therapies for pancreatitis pain.
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ABSTRACT: Bile acids are the initiating factors of biliary acute pancreatitis. Bile acids can induce the activation of intracellular zymogen, thus leading injury in pancreatic acinar cells. Pathological zymogen activation in pancreatic acinar cells is a common feature of all types of acute pancreatitis. The proteins expressed in pancreatic acinar cells during the activation of zymogen may determine the severity of acute pancreatitis. The present study aims to determine the differentially expressed proteins in taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells as an in vitro model for acute pancreatitis. Rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells were treated with taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate for 20 min. Laser confocal scanning microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect activated trypsinogen in pancreatic acinar AR42J cells. After the determination of trypsinogen activation, proteome analysis was performed to identify the proteins differentially expressed in taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate-treated cells and non-treated cells. After treatment with taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate for 20 min, the activation of trypsinogen in AR42J cells was concurrent with changes in the protein expression profile. Thirty-nine differentially expressed proteins were detected; among these, 23 proteins were up-regulated and 16 proteins were down-regulated. KEGG analysis indicated that these proteins are involved in cellular metabolic pathways, cellular defensive mechanisms, intracellular calcium regulation and cytoskeletal changes. The expression of proteins in the pancreatic acinar cell changes at the early stage of biliary acute pancreatitis. These differentially expressed proteins will provide valuable information to understand the pathophysiologic mechanism biliary acute pancreatitis and may be useful for prognostic indices of acute pancreatitis.Pancreatology 05/2012; 12(3):248-56. DOI:10.1016/j.pan.2012.02.006 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anomalous protease activities are associated with many diseases. Great efforts are paid for selecting specific protease modulators for therapeutic approaches. We have selected new modulators of enzyme activity by an homogeneous assay based on a doubly labeled small peptide used as substrate of trypsin. The substrate incorporates the fluorophore 5-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS) at one end and an EDANS-quenching moiety (Dabcyl, (4-(4-dimethylaminophenylazo)-benzoic acid)) on the other end. Following cleavage by trypsin, the peptide-EDANS product is released interrupting the fluorescence resonance energy transfer effect and yielding bright fluorescence, which can be detected using excitation wavelengths at 335-345 nm and emission wavelengths at 485-510 nm. The method optimized, tested by detecting the strong inhibiting effect of α1-antitrypsin on trypsin activity, has been developed on 384 multi-well plates in a volume of 10 μL, using an automated platform. From the screening of a chemical library, four compounds that inhibit trypsin activity with IC(50)s in the micromolar range have been identified. Interestingly, the most active compound (M4) shows a chemical structure recapitulating that of other more potent inhibitors with thiourea and halogenated centers. Molecular docking studies show that M4 is a competitive inhibitor recognizing most residues within or nearby the catalytic pocket.Molecular Biotechnology 06/2012; 54(2). DOI:10.1007/s12033-012-9566-z · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mesotrypsin displays unusual resistance to inhibition by polypeptide trypsin inhibitors and cleaves some such inhibitors as substrates, despite a high degree of conservation with other mammalian trypsins. Substitution of Arg for the generally conserved Gly-193 has been implicated as a critical determinant of the unusual behavior of mesotrypsin toward protein protease inhibitors. Another relatively conserved residue near the trypsin active site, Tyr-39, is substituted by Ser-39 in mesotrypsin. Tyr-39, but not Ser-39, forms a hydrogen bond with the main chain amide nitrogen of the P(4) ' residue of a bound protease inhibitor. To investigate the role of the Tyr-39 H-bond in trypsin-inhibitor interactions, we reciprocally mutated position 39 in mesotrypsin and human cationic trypsin to Tyr-39 and Ser-39, respectively. We assessed inhibition constants and cleavage rates of canonical protease inhibitors bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and the amyloid precursor protein Kunitz protease inhibitor domain by mesotrypsin and cationic trypsin variants, finding that the presence of Ser-39 relative to Tyr-39 results in a 4- to 13-fold poorer binding affinity and a 2- to 18-fold increase in cleavage rate. We also report the crystal structure of the mesotrypsin-S39Y•BPTI complex, in which we observe an H-bond between Tyr-39 OH and BPTI Ile-19 N. Our results indicate that the presence of Ser-39 in mesotrypsin, and corresponding absence of a single H-bond to the inhibitor backbone, makes a small but significant functional contribution to the resistance of mesotrypsin to inhibition and the ability of mesotrypsin to proteolyze inhibitors.Protein Science 08/2012; 21(8):1103-12. DOI:10.1002/pro.2097 · 2.85 Impact Factor