Blocking Fas ligand on leukocytes attenuates kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury.
ABSTRACT Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI), and T cells mediate the early phase of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathway modulates the balance of T cell subsets in the peripheral circulation as well as multiple inflammatory responses, suggesting that FasL may mediate ischemic AKI. Here, we induced bilateral renal IRI in mice bearing a loss-of-function mutation of FasL (the gld mutation) and in wild-type mice. Compared with wild-type mice, serum creatinine was lower in gld mice (1.4 ± 0.9 mg/dl versus 2.6 ± 0.4) at 24 hours after IRI (P<0.05). In addition, gld mice had fewer TNF-α-producing T lymphocytes in the kidneys and renal lymph nodes. Furthermore, pharmacologic blockade of FasL protected the kidneys of wild-type mice from IRI. Analysis of bone marrow chimeric mice suggested that the pathogenic effect of FasL involves leukocytes; reconstitution of wild-type mice with gld splenocytes attenuated IRI. In contrast, reconstitution of gld mice with wild-type splenocytes enhanced IRI. These data demonstrate that FasL, particularly on leukocytes, mediates ischemic AKI.
- SourceAvailable from: Guido Vacano[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Signals transmitted by binding of Fas ligand (FasL) to the Fas receptor (CD95/Apo-1) have pleiotropic effects on cellular function that present opportunities for therapeutic applications. For example, depending on the circumstances, overexpression of FasL can enhance, prevent, or reverse growth of spontaneous or transplantable tumors. Furthermore, local administration of FasL into a single paw in susceptible mice protects from or reduces the severity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in all paws. Here, we define mechanisms that mediate systemic protection induced by locally delivered FasL. Protection is not solely dependent on local interactions between Fas and FasL, but rather requires induction of a paradoxical inflammatory response that not only destroys Fas-resistant tumors, but also recruits motile, activated, Fas-bearing T cells that are Fas sensitive. We demonstrate by following the antigen-specific recruitment and subsequent termination of transgenic T cells that activated T cells, including autoreactive cells responsible for CIA, are eliminated within this inflammatory environment through the overexpressed FasL. The nature of the inflammatory response, which depends on the Fas ligand being cell bound and not soluble, and the magnitude of FasL expression within the inflammatory milieu are essential for this effect, as arthritogenic inflammation alone resulting from CIA induction is insufficient to ameliorate the disease or eliminate antigen-specific T cells, even upon systemic delivery of soluble FasL. These data show that gene delivery of membrane-bound FasL can effectively recruit and eliminate autoreactive T cells.Clinical Immunology 08/2004; 112(1):54-65. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fas ligand (FasL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family and induces apoptosis in Fas (CD95)-bearing target cells. In this study, we generated several mAbs that react with mouse FasL (mFasL) and characterized their functional properties. One of these mAbs, K10, specifically reacted with mFasL derived from C57BL/6 (B6) mice, but not that from BALB/c mice as estimated by surface staining and blocking of cytotoxic activities of mFasL transfectants, suggesting a polymorphism of mFasL. Sequence analysis of mFasL cDNA from several strains revealed that BALB/c and DBA/2 mice have three nucleotide differences from the known B6 and C3H sequences, which result in two amino acid substitutions (Thr-184 --> Ala-184 and Glu-218 --> Gly-218) in the extracellular region. Analysis of the K10 reactivity and genotyping by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed that inbred mice segregate into the following two allotypes: mFasL.1 (B6, C3H, MRL, SJL, NOD, NZB, NZW) and mFasL.2 (BALB/c, DBA/1, DBA/2). Interestingly, COS7 cells expressing BALB/c FasL lysed Fas-bearing target cells more efficiently than those expressing B6 FasL. Furthermore, BALB/c-derived CD8-FasL fusion protein, which is composed of the extracellular domains of human CD8alpha and mFasL, exhibited 9-fold higher specific activity than did B6-derived CD8-FasL. These results suggest that in mFasL.2 mice the Fas/FasL system works more effectively than in mFasL.1 mice.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1997; 94(8):3914-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although ischemia reperfusion (I/R) induces apoptotic damage of mammalian small intestine, the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. We investigated the appearance of apoptosis at various time-points (0-24 h) of reperfusion after 1-h ischemia and the expression of various apoptosis-related proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bax, Fas, Fas ligand (FasL), activated caspase-3, and cytochrome c, immunohistochemically in rat small intestine. As assessed by TUNEL and electron microscopy, apoptotic cells were increased at 3 h of reperfusion in all intestinal parts (villous epithelium, crypt epithelium, and stroma of intestine). Moreover, the TUNEL-positive cells in the stroma were later identified as T cells. The expression of Fas and FasL as well as activated caspase-3 was markedly increased at 3 h of reperfusion in the stroma. In the villous epithelium, a transient decrease in Bcl-2 expression was found while in the crypt epithelium, Fas expression was induced. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of leupeptin (an SH-protease inhibitor) after I/R resulted in a significant inhibition of the induction of apoptosis in the stroma and crypt epithelium. Our results indicate that the triggering molecules of apoptosis in the I/R rat small intestine may vary depending on cell type and that the use of a broad-spectrum protease inhibitor may reduce intestinal damage.Histochemie 04/2005; 123(3):249-61. · 2.61 Impact Factor