Ocular Lesions in Canine Mucopolysaccharidosis I and Response to Enzyme Replacement Therapy
ABSTRACT Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is an inherited metabolic disorder resulting from deficiency of α-L-iduronidase and lysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in multiple tissues. Accumulation of GAG in corneal stromal cells causes corneal opacity and reduced vision. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of ocular GAG accumulation and investigate the effectiveness of intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on corneal GAG accumulation in dogs.
Ocular tissues were obtained from 58 dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis I and four unaffected controls. Affected dogs received either low-dose ERT, high-dose ERT, or no treatment; some low-dose dogs also received intrathecal treatments. Histologic severity of corneal stromal GAG accumulation was scored.
Accumulation of GAG was found in corneal stromal cells and scleral fibroblasts but not in corneal epithelium, endothelium, ciliary epithelium, choroid, retina, retinal pigment epithelium, or optic nerve. Corneal GAG accumulation increased in severity with increasing age. Although low-dose ERT did not significantly reduce corneal stromal GAG accumulation in comparison with untreated animals, high-dose ERT did result in significantly less GAG accumulation compared with the untreated dogs (adjusted P = 0.0143) or the low-dose ERT group (adjusted P = 0.0031). Intrathecal treatments did not significantly affect GAG accumulation. Dogs that began ERT shortly after birth also had significantly less (P < 0.0001) GAG accumulation in the corneal stroma than dogs with a later onset of treatment.
These data suggest that high-dose, intravenous ERT is effective at preventing and/or clearing corneal stromal GAG accumulation, particularly if initiated early after birth.
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ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), or Hunter syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) and is characterized by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS II has been treated by hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT)/enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), but its effectiveness in the central nervous system (CNS) is limited because of poor enzyme uptake across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To increase the efficacy of ERT in the brain, we tested an intraventricular ERT procedure consisting of repeated administrations of IDS (20μg/mouse/3weeks) in IDS-knockout, MPS II model mice. The IDS enzyme activity and the accumulation of total GAGs were measured in mouse brains. The IDS activity was significantly increased, and the accumulation of total GAGs was decreased in the MPS II mouse brains treated with multiple administrations of IDS via intraventricular ERT. Additionally, a high level of IDS enzyme activity was appreciated in other MPS II mouse tissues, such as the liver, spleen, testis and others. A Y-maze was used to test learning and memory after repeated intraventricular ERT with IDS. The IDS-treated mouse groups recovered the capacity for short-term memory and activity. Although large and small vacuoles were found at the margin of the cerebellar Purkinje cells in the disease-control mice, these vacuoles disappeared upon treated with IDS. Loss of vacuoles was also observed in other tissues (liver, kidney and testis). These results demonstrate the possible efficacy of an ERT procedure with intraventricular administration of IDS for the treatment of MPS II.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 05/2012; 107(1-2):122-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.05.005
- Eye (London, England) 06/2013; 27(9). DOI:10.1038/eye.2013.109
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on ocular manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), to highlight diagnostic pitfalls in the evaluation of affected patients, and to briefly review etiopathogenesis, systemic manifestations, and therapeutic interventions in MPS. Advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy for MPS have led to decreased morbidity and increased life-span of patients. Besides other causes, visual impairment because of corneal opacification, retinal degeneration, and optic atrophy remains a common cause of disability in MPS. The application of a standard ophthalmic evaluation protocol may serve as an important diagnostic and disease monitoring tool in patients. Diagnostic delays are not uncommon in patients with MPS. Given the early ocular involvement in MPS, ophthalmologists play a crucial role in early detection and follow-up of patients with MPS. Ophthalmic evaluation can be impeded by corneal opacification and patient cooperation. Altered corneal biomechanics confound intraocular pressure measurements. Recently developed therapies have made early detection increasingly important. Accurate diagnosis of specific MPS subtypes is of paramount importance for initiating appropriate therapy. Combined with advances in supportive care of ocular and systemic manifestations, the prognosis for patients with MPS has vastly improved.Current opinion in ophthalmology 07/2013; DOI:10.1097/ICU.0b013e3283644ea1