Article

An evolutionary process that assembles phenotypes through space rather than through time

School of Biological Sciences A08, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 03/2011; 108(14):5708-11. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1018989108
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In classical evolutionary theory, traits evolve because they facilitate organismal survival and/or reproduction. We discuss a different type of evolutionary mechanism that relies upon differential dispersal. Traits that enhance rates of dispersal inevitably accumulate at expanding range edges, and assortative mating between fast-dispersing individuals at the invasion front results in an evolutionary increase in dispersal rates in successive generations. This cumulative process (which we dub "spatial sorting") generates novel phenotypes that are adept at rapid dispersal, irrespective of how the underlying genes affect an organism's survival or its reproductive success. Although the concept is not original with us, its revolutionary implications for evolutionary theory have been overlooked. A range of biological phenomena (e.g., acceleration of invasion fronts, insular flightlessness, preadaptation) may have evolved via spatial sorting as well as (or rather than) by natural selection, and this evolutionary mechanism warrants further study.

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