Identification of flavonoids in the stems and leaves of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.
ABSTRACT Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (S. baicalensis), a perennial herb of the Labiatae family, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, a comprehensive qualitative analysis of flavonoids in the stems and leaves of S. baicalensis was performed. Under the optimized experimental conditions, 21 flavonoids were clearly detected. 17 of them were successfully identified based on the on-line UV and MS(n) data and were sequentially confirmed by the literature search. The rest 4 flavonones, which were not on-line identified, were successfully isolated and were identified by 1D and 2D NMR. One of them, 5,6,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy flavanone-7-O-glucuronide (2) is a new compound.
Chapter: Ionic LiquidsGreen Reaction Media in Organic Synthesis, 11/2007: pages 9 - 58; , ISBN: 9780470988770
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ABSTRACT: The group contribution method proposed by Valderrama and Robles in 2007 and extended by Valderrama et al. in 2008 to estimate the critical properties of ionic liquids is revised and new groups have been included. The method originally proposed has been used by several authors in applications such as high pressure phase equilibrium, density correlations, heat capacity estimations, and consistency tests for mixture data. Therefore, it is important to have a consistent and reliable method so all applications consider the same assumptions and values for the critical properties. The values previously reported by the authors are recalculated, unifying criteria for the names of the ionic liquids, for the assignment of the groups forming the molecules, and for the equivalence of groups. Also, a spreadsheet file that allows any reader to calculate the critical properties of any ionic liquid containing the 44 groups defined by the method is provided as Supporting Information.Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research - IND ENG CHEM RES. 06/2009; 48(14).
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ABSTRACT: A series of hydrophilic and hydrophobic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been prepared and characterized to determine how water content, density, viscosity, surface tension, melting point, and thermal stability are affected by changes in alkyl chain length and anion. In the series of RTILs studied here, the choice of anion determines water miscibility and has the most dramatic effect on the properties. Hydrophilic anions (e.g., chloride and iodide) produce ionic liquids that are miscible in any proportion with water but, upon the removal of some water from the solution, illustrate how sensitive the physical properties are to a change in water content. In comparison, for ionic liquids containing more hydrophobic anions (e.g., PF6− and N(SO2CF3)2−), the removal of water has a smaller affect on the resulting properties. For a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, increasing the alkyl chain length from butyl to hexyl to octyl increases the hydrophobicity and the viscosities of the ionic liquids increase, whereas densities and surface tension values decrease. Thermal analyses indicate high temperatures are attainable prior to decomposition and DSC studies reveal a glass transition for several samples. ILs incorporating PF6− have been used in liquid/liquid partitioning of organic molecules from water and the results for two of these are also discussed here. On a cautionary note, the chemistry of the individual cations and anions of the ILs should not be overlooked as, in the case of certain conditions for PF6− ILs, contact with an aqueous phase may result in slow hydrolysis of the PF6− with the concomitant release of HF and other species.Green Chemistry 01/2001; 3(4):156-164. · 6.83 Impact Factor