Viral pneumonia.

Department of Paediatrics, Turku University Hospitals, Turku, Finland.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 39.21). 03/2011; 377(9773):1264-75. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61459-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT About 200 million cases of viral community-acquired pneumonia occur every year-100 million in children and 100 million in adults. Molecular diagnostic tests have greatly increased our understanding of the role of viruses in pneumonia, and findings indicate that the incidence of viral pneumonia has been underestimated. In children, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses are the agents identified most frequently in both developed and developing countries. Dual viral infections are common, and a third of children have evidence of viral-bacterial co-infection. In adults, viruses are the putative causative agents in a third of cases of community-acquired pneumonia, in particular influenza viruses, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses. Bacteria continue to have a predominant role in adults with pneumonia. Presence of viral epidemics in the community, patient's age, speed of onset of illness, symptoms, biomarkers, radiographic changes, and response to treatment can help differentiate viral from bacterial pneumonia. However, no clinical algorithm exists that will distinguish clearly the cause of pneumonia. No clear consensus has been reached about whether patients with obvious viral community-acquired pneumonia need to be treated with antibiotics. Apart from neuraminidase inhibitors for pneumonia caused by influenza viruses, there is no clear role for use of specific antivirals to treat viral community-acquired pneumonia. Influenza vaccines are the only available specific preventive measures. Further studies are needed to better understand the cause and pathogenesis of community-acquired pneumonia. Furthermore, regional differences in cause of pneumonia should be investigated, in particular to obtain more data from developing countries.

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    ABSTRACT: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the five leading causes of death among children in developing countries, accounting for approximately three million deaths per year. Identification of the modifiable risk factors of CAP may help to reduce the burden of this disease. In this study, the impact of the socioeconomic status (SES) on the severity and outcome of CAP among Egyptian children was studied. This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study which included 1,470 children diagnosed with CAP, aged two to 15 years (median age 5.4 years). The diagnosis of CAP was based on clinical and radiological findings. A structured questionnaire and the patients' medical records were used for the data collection. The subjects were divided into two groups: mild and severe CAP. Social and demographic variables were compared, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. THE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS SHOWED THAT A LOW MATERNAL EDUCATION LEVEL (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.12 -6.70; P = .0001), unavailability of adequate medical care (OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.99 -4.88; P = .0001), a low family income (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 0.99 -4.78; P = .047), and parents' smoking habits (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.15 -3.55; P = .014) were significant independent predictive risk factors for severe CAP among Egyptian children. Public health measures against these socio-demographic risk factors should be identified as priorities in order to help reduce the disease burden of deaths from severe CAP among Egyptian children.
    Infectious diseases of poverty. 01/2014; 3:14.
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    ABSTRACT: The role of mixed pneumonia (virus + bacteria) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been described in recent years. However, it is not known whether the systemic inflammatory profile is different compared to monomicrobial CAP. We wanted to investigate this profile of mixed viral-bacterial infection and to compare it to monomicrobial bacterial or viral CAP.
    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 07/2014; 14(1):123. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Data on prognostic factors among children with severe pneumonia are scarce in middle-income countries. We investigated prognostic factors for an adverse outcome among children admitted to the Hôpital d’Enfants de Rabat, Morocco with World Health Organization-defined clinically severe pneumonia (CSP). Methods Children aged 2–59 months admitted to the hospital and fulfilling the CSP definition were recruited into this 13-month prospective study. A poor prognosis was defined as death, a need for intensive care, or a Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC) score ≥3. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to ascertain independent predictive factors for a poor prognosis. Results Of the 689 children included in this analysis, 55 (8.0%) required intensive care and 28 died (4.0%). Five hundred and two (72.8%) children were classified as having a good prognosis and 187 (27.2%) as having a poor prognosis. A history of prematurity (odds ratio (OR) 2.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24–5.04), of fever (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.32–3.83), living in a house with smokers (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.18–2.72), impaired consciousness (OR 10.96, 95% CI 2.88–41.73), cyanosis (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.05–4.15), pallor (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.34–3.84), having rhonchi on auscultation (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.58–3.79), and human metapneumovirus infection (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.13–4.02) were all independent risk factors for an adverse outcome, whereas a history of asthma (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.25–0.84) was the only independent risk factor for a positive outcome. Conclusions The early identification of factors associated with a poor prognosis could improve management strategies and the likelihood of survival of Moroccan children with severe pneumonia.
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 10/2014;

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