Expression of the Abca-subfamily of genes in Abcc6-/- mice--upregulation of Abca4.
ABSTRACT Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a heritable multi-system disorder, is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene primarily expressed in the liver. Recent analysis of cultured fibroblasts from patients with PXE has suggested compensatory alterations in the expression of the ABCA-subfamily of genes. We have now determined by quantitative RT-PCR the level of expression of Abca-family of genes in a mouse model of PXE developed by targeted ablation of Abcc6. The results indicated variable levels of mRNA for different Abca genes in the liver; however, only one of them, Abca4, was significantly, ∼6.5-fold, upregulated in the Abcc6(-/-) mice in comparison with wild-type mice. In the same mice, Abca4 was not upregulated in the eyes or the kidney, suggesting that the upregulation of Abca4 in the liver is a tissue-specific compensatory consequence of the 'knock-out' of Abcc6.
Article: Gene expression profiling of ABC transporters in dermal fibroblasts of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients identifies new candidates involved in PXE pathogenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the ABCC6 gene, encoding the multidrug resistance-associated protein 6 (MRP6), cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). This heritable disorder leads to pathological alterations in connective tissues. The implication of MRP6 deficiency in PXE is still unknown. Moreover, nothing is known about a possible compensatory expression of other ATP binding-cassette (ABC) transporter proteins in MRP6-deficient cells. We investigated the gene expression profile of 47 ABC transporters in human dermal fibroblasts of healthy controls (n=2) and PXE patients (n=4) by TaqMan low-density array. The analysis revealed the expression of 37 ABC transporter genes in dermal fibroblasts. ABCC6 gene expression was not quantifiable in fibroblasts derived from PXE patients. Seven genes (ABCA6, ABCA9, ABCA10, ABCB5, ABCC2, ABCC9 and ABCD2) were induced, whereas the gene expression of one gene (ABCA3) was decreased, comparing controls and PXE patients (with at least twofold changes). We reanalyzed the gene expression of selected ABC transporters in a larger set of dermal fibroblasts from controls and PXE patients (n=6, each). Reanalysis showed high interindividual variability between samples, but confirmed the results obtained in the array analysis. The gene expression of ABC transporter genes, as well as lineage markers of PXE, was further examined after inhibition of ABCC6 gene expression by using specific small-interfering RNA. These experiments corroborated the observed gene expression alterations, most notably in the ABCA subclass (up to fourfold, P<0.05). We therefore conclude that MRP6-deficient dermal fibroblasts exhibit a distinct gene expression profile of ABCA transporters, potentially to compensate for MRP6 deficiency. Moreover, our results point to a function for ABCC6/MRP6 in sterol transport, as sterols are preferential regulators of ABCA transporter activity and expression. Further studies are now required to uncover the role of ABCA transporters in PXE.Laboratory Investigation 10/2008; 88(12):1303-15. · 3.64 Impact Factor
Article: Mutation detection in the ABCC6 gene and genotype-phenotype analysis in a large international case series affected by pseudoxanthoma elasticum.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), an autosomal recessive disorder with considerable phenotypic variability, mainly affects the eyes, skin and cardiovascular system, characterised by dystrophic mineralization of connective tissues. It is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 (ATP binding cassette family C member 6) gene, which encodes MRP6 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 6). To investigate the mutation spectrum of ABCC6 and possible genotype-phenotype correlations. Mutation data were collected on an international case series of 270 patients with PXE (239 probands, 31 affected family members). A denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography-based assay was developed to screen for mutations in all 31 exons, eliminating pseudogene coamplification. In 134 patients with a known phenotype and both mutations identified, genotype-phenotype correlations were assessed. In total, 316 mutant alleles in ABCC6, including 39 novel mutations, were identified in 239 probands. Mutations were found to cluster in exons 24 and 28, corresponding to the second nucleotide-binding fold and the last intracellular domain of the protein. Together with the recurrent R1141X and del23-29 mutations, these mutations accounted for 71.5% of the total individual mutations identified. Genotype-phenotype analysis failed to reveal a significant correlation between the types of mutations identified or their predicted effect on the expression of the protein and the age of onset and severity of the disease. This study emphasises the principal role of ABCC6 mutations in the pathogenesis of PXE, but the reasons for phenotypic variability remain to be explored.Journal of Medical Genetics 11/2007; 44(10):621-8. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review recent advances in our understanding of the genetic pathomechanisms of harlequin ichthyosis (HI) (the most devastating subtype of congenital ichthyoses) and its prenatal diagnosis and to discuss the possibility of future gene therapy. PubMed search for articles about HI, its causative protein adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A12 (ABCA12), and related molecules. English-language studies were selected if they provided useful information about the pathomechanisms of HI and ABCA lipid transporters. This article describes ABCA12 as a causative molecule involved in defects in HI, summarizes the known genetic disorders caused by genetic defects in ABCA lipid transporters, and highlights the prospects of prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy for HI. Harlequin ichthyosis is caused by a serious functional deficiency of ABCA12. ABCA12 and ABCA3 are essential lipid transporters for human adaptation to a dry terrestrial environment. In clinical practice, information regarding the genetic defects and pathomechanisms underlying HI is important for precise diagnosis, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis.Archives of Dermatology 08/2006; 142(7):914-8. · 3.89 Impact Factor