Zaremba T, Thomas HD, Cole M, Coulthard SA, Plummer ER, Curtin NJPoly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) pharmacogenetics, activity and expression analysis in cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Biochem J 436: 671-679

Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Paul O'Gorman Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK.
Biochemical Journal (Impact Factor: 4.4). 03/2011; 436(3):671-9. DOI: 10.1042/BJ20101723
Source: PubMed


There is a wide inter-individual variation in PARP-1 {PAR [poly(ADP-ribose)] polymerase 1} activity, which may have implications for health. We investigated if the variation: (i) is due to polymorphisms in the PARP-1 gene or PARP-1 protein expression; and (ii) affects patients' response to anticancer treatment. We studied 56 HV (healthy volunteers) and 118 CP (cancer patients) with supporting in vivo experiments. PARP activity ranged between 10 and 2600 pmol of PAR/106 cells and expression between 0.02-1.55 ng of PARP-1/μg of protein. PARP-1 expression correlated with activity in HV (R2=0.19, P=0.003) and CP (R2=0.06, P=0.01). A short CA repeat in the promoter was significantly associated with increased cancer risk [OR (odds ratio), 5.22; 95% CI (confidence interval), 1.79-15.24]. PARP activity was higher in men than women (P=0.04) in the HV. Male mice also had higher PARP activity than females or castrated males. Oestrogen supplementation activated PARP in PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from female mice (P=0.003), but inhibited PARP-1 in their livers by 80%. PARP activity and expression were not dependent on the investigated polymorphisms, but there was a modest correlation of PARP activity with expression. Studies in the HV revealed sex differences in PARP activity, which was confirmed in mice and shown to be associated with sex hormones. Toxic response to treatment was not associated with PARP activity and/or expression.

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    • "Ionizing radiation and DNA-damaging agents significantly induce PARP-1 and levels of PARP are higher in tumors [9], [10], therefore, PARPi could be used to sensitize to DNA-damaging chemo- or radio-therapy. Clinical success of PARPi on a cohort of patients [21] that included some with PCa prompted our interest in exploring the potential use of rucaparib (CO-338; formerly known as AG014699 and PF-01367338) as a radiosensitizer. "
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to genotoxic agents, such as irradiation produces DNA damage, the toxicity of which is augmented when the DNA repair is impaired. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors were found to be "synthetic lethal" in cells deficient in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that impair homologous recombination. However, since many tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa) rarely have on such mutations, there is considerable interest in finding alternative determinants of PARP inhibitor sensitivity. We evaluated the effectiveness of radiation in combination with the PARP inhibitor, rucaparib in PCa cells. The combination index for clonogenic survival following radiation and rucaparib treatments revealed synergistic interactions in a panel of PCa cell lines, being strongest for LNCaP and VCaP cells that express ETS gene fusion proteins. These findings correlated with synergistic interactions for senescence activation, as indicated by β--galactosidase staining. Absence of PTEN and presence of ETS gene fusion thus facilitated activation of senescence, which contributed to decreased clonogenic survival. Increased radiosensitivity in the presence of rucaparib was associated with persistent DNA breaks, as determined by χ-H2AX, p53BP1, and Rad51 foci. VCaP cells, which harbor the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion and PC3 cells that stably express a similar construct (fusion III) showed enhanced sensitivity towards rucaparib, which, in turn, increased the radiation response to a similar extent as the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441. Rucaparib radiosensitized PCa cells, with a clear benefit of low dose-rate radiation (LDR) administered over a longer period of time that caused enhanced DNA damage. LDR mimicking brachytherapy, which is used successfully in the clinic, was most effective when combined with rucaparib by inducing persistent DNA damage and senescence, leading to decreased clonogenic survival. This combination was most effective in the presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG and in the absence of PTEN, indicating clinical potential for brachytherapy in patients with intermediate and high risk PCa.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e60408. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060408 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Functional relations between YY1 and PARP-1 are also relevant in cases where enzymatic PARP-1 activity modulates transcription. Recently detected gender differences confirm the contribution of exogenous factors to PARP-1 regulation [47]. These findings lend further support to the view that, like YY1, PARP-1 acts in a context-dependent manner, exerting either activating or repressing effects. "
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence is presented for the involvement of the interplay between transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the regulation of mouse PARP-1 gene (muPARP-1) promoter activity. We identified potential YY1 binding motifs (BM) at seven positions in the muPARP-1 core-promoter (-574/+200). Binding of YY1 was observed by the electrophoretic supershift assay using anti-YY1 antibody and linearized or supercoiled forms of plasmids bearing the core promoter, as well as with 30 bp oligonucleotide probes containing the individual YY1 binding motifs and four muPARP-1 promoter fragments. We detected YY1 binding to BM1 (-587/-558), BM4 (-348/-319) and a very prominent association with BM7 (+86/+115). Inspection of BM7 reveals overlap of the muPARP-1 translation start site with the Kozak sequence and YY1 and PARP-1 recognition sites. Site-directed mutagenesis of the YY1 and PARP-1 core motifs eliminated protein binding and showed that YY1 mediates PARP-1 binding next to the Kozak sequence. Transfection experiments with a reporter gene under the control of the muPARP-1 promoter revealed that YY1 binding to BM1 and BM4 independently repressed the promoter. Mutations at these sites prevented YY1 binding, allowing for increased reporter gene activity. In PARP-1 knockout cells subjected to PARP-1 overexpression, effects similar to YY1 became apparent; over expression of YY1 and PARP-1 revealed their synergistic action. Together with our previous findings these results expand the PARP-1 autoregulatory loop principle by YY1 actions, implying rigid limitation of muPARP-1 expression. The joint actions of PARP-1 and YY1 emerge as important contributions to cell homeostasis.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e44125. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0044125 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "PARP-1 knockout mouse models were also susceptible to obesity and insulin resistance (Devalaraja- Narashimha and Padanilam, 2010). However, there is wide interindividual variability of PARP activity in humans, thus potentially limiting toxicity to subpopulations only (Zaremba et al, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, PARP inhibitors (PARPi) were developed to potentiate the cytotoxic effect of certain chemotherapeutic agents and are currently being investigated in combination with chemotherapy in diverse cancer types. These agents are also radiosensitisers and clinical trials of PARPi with concurrent radiation are required. It has long been recognised that defective DNA repair pathways lead to tumour susceptibility. Recent studies indicate that tumour cells with defective homologous recombination (HR) repair pathways, the classic example being BRCA mutations, are exquisitely sensitive to PARPi. Defects in HR are not restricted to BRCA-associated tumours and other cancer types may be enriched for HR defects and hence susceptible to PARP inhibition. The identification of predictive markers for sensitivity to PARP inhibition is a priority area for research.
    British Journal of Cancer 10/2011; 105(8):1114-22. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2011.382 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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