Dihydrogen contacts in alkanes are subtle but not faint.
ABSTRACT Alkane molecules are held together in the crystal state by purportedly weak homonuclear R-H···H-R dihydrogen interactions. In an apparent contradiction, the high melting points and vaporization enthalpies of polyhedranes in condensed phases require quite strong intermolecular interactions. Two questions arise: 'How strong can a weak C-H···H-C bond be?' and 'How do the size and topology of the carbon skeleton affect these bonding interactions?' A systematic computational study of intermolecular interactions in dimers of n-alkanes and polyhedranes, such as tetrahedrane, cubane, octahedrane or dodecahedrane, showed that attractive C-H···H-C interactions are stronger than usually thought. We identified factors that account for the strength of these interactions, including the tertiary nature of the carbon atoms and their low pyramidality. An alkane with a bowl shape was designed in the search for stronger dihydrogen intermolecular bonding, and a dissociation energy as high as 12 kJ mol⁻¹ is predicted by our calculations.
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ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of tetraphenylphosphonium squarate, bianthrone, and bis(benzophenone)azine are shown to contain a variety of C-H(delta+)...(delta+)H-C interactions, as well as a variety of C-H...O and C-H...C(pi) interactions. Each of these molecules possesses interactions that can possibly be characterized as either H-H bonds or weak hydrogen bonds based on the first four criteria proposed by Koch and Popelier. These interactions have been completely characterized topologically after the multipole refinement of the structures. It appears that weak interactions of the form C-H(delta+)...(delta+)H-C possess certain correlations between the various properties of the electron density at the bond critical points. The coexistence of the three types of interactions makes it possible to establish similarities and differences in the correlations of these weak interactions. This all leads to a better understanding of H-H interactions and how they fit into the hierarchy of weak interactions.The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 08/2006; 110(28):8970-8. · 2.77 Impact Factor
Article: An overview of halogen bonding.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Halogen bonding (XB) is a type of noncovalent interaction between a halogen atom X in one molecule and a negative site in another. X can be chlorine, bromine or iodine. The strength of the interaction increases in the order Cl<Br<I. After a brief review of experimental evidence relating to halogen bonding, we present an explanation for its occurrence in terms of a region of positive electrostatic potential that is present on the outermost portions of some covalently-bonded halogen atoms. The existence and magnitude of this positive region, which we call the sigma-hole, depends upon the relative electron-attracting powers of X and the remainder of its molecule, as well as the degree of sp hybridization of the s unshared electrons of X. The high electronegativity of fluorine and its tendency to undergo significant sp hybridization account for its failure to halogen bond. Some computed XB interaction energies are presented and discussed. Mention is also made of the importance of halogen bonding in biological systems and processes, and in crystal engineering.Journal of Molecular Modeling 02/2007; 13(2):305-11. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The first representative of stable tetrahedranyl anion, tris(trimethylsilyl)tetrahedranyllithium (3), has been synthesized by the reaction of tetrakis(trimethylsilyl)tetrahedrane (2) with methyllithium in tetrahydrofuran. The structural characterization of the tetrahedranyllithium has been achieved by X-ray crystallography, showing that the structure of 3.(TMEDA)1.5 represents a stretched tetrahedron. The endocyclic C(Li)-C(SiMe3) bond lengths range from 1.5408(15) to 1.5441(15) A (av 1.5425(15) A), and are longer than the endocyclic C(SiMe3)-C(SiMe3) bond lengths, which range from 1.4961(15) to 1.5009(15) A (av 1.4986(15) A). Methyl- and hydrogen-substituted tetrahedranes have also been prepared by the reaction of 3 with dimethyl sulfate and cyclopentadiene, respectively.Journal of the American Chemical Society 11/2003; 125(42):12684-5. · 10.68 Impact Factor