Obesity - United States, 1988-2008.
ABSTRACT The prevalence of obesity in the United States has increased substantially since the 1960s. From 1976--1980 to 2007--2008, obesity prevalence increased from 15% to 34% among adults and from 5% to 17% among children and adolescents. Substantial differences exist in obesity prevalence among racial/ethnic groups, and these differences vary by sex and age group.
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ABSTRACT: Clinicians are routinely challenged in their management of cancer patients because of the complexities of obesity and diabetes that are often found as comorbid conditions. Although attention has been given to optimizing treatment planning for these patients, less attention has been given to manage their obesity and diabetes. This suggests that newer, comprehensive approaches must be developed for the treatment of cancer patients as a 'whole' rather than as a single disease. While the specific pathologies of each are unique, years of research have indicated intimate molecular links between these chronic diseases. The contribution of sedentary lifestyles and poor dietary habits is recognized; however, the precise molecular links are still not well-explored. In addition, emerging evidence suggests the important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the development and progression of several diseases, yet their roles in linking obesity, diabetes and cancer are only now beginning to be recognized. It is hoped that miRNAs will serve as novel biomarkers and molecular targets for cancer therapy in patients with comorbid conditions. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathobiology of obesity, diabetes and cancer, and document molecular roles of miRNAs linking cancer with obesity and diabetes.Obesity Reviews 07/2011; 12(12):1050-62. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00906.x · 7.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of ethnicity in determining disease severity in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. We recruited 152 patients with biopsy-proven NASH, 63% of whom were Hispanic and 37% of whom were Caucasian. Both groups were well matched for age, sex, and total body fat. We measured: (1) liver fat by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy; (2) fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin (FPI), and free fatty acid (FFA) levels; (3) total body fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); (4) liver and muscle insulin sensitivity (insulin clamp with 3-[(3)H] glucose); (5) insulin resistance at the level of the liver (fasting endogenous glucose production derived from 3-[(3)H] glucose infusion × FPI) and adipose tissue (fasting FFA × FPI). Liver fat was slightly, but not significantly, higher in Hispanic vs. Caucasian patients (27 ± 2% vs. 24 ± 2%, p = 0.16). However, this trend did not translate into worse liver steatosis, necroinflammation or fibrosis. Patients with NASH had severe hepatic, adipose tissue and muscle insulin resistance versus healthy subjects without NASH nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, but there were no differences between both ethnic groups on these parameters. However, Hispanics versus Caucasians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) had a trend for worse hepatic/adipose tissue insulin resistance and fibrosis. Conclusion: When Hispanic and Caucasian patients with NASH are well matched for clinical parameters, particularly for adiposity, slightly higher liver fat content is not associated with worse hepatic insulin resistance or more severe NASH on histology. Hispanic ethnicity does not appear to be a major determinant of disease severity in NASH, although those with diabetes may be at greater risk of fibrosis. Given the higher risk of T2DM in Hispanics, long-term studies are needed to define their risk of disease progression.Hepatology 09/2011; 54(3):837-45. DOI:10.1002/hep.24483 · 11.19 Impact Factor
- Medical Complications of Type 2 Diabetes, 09/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-363-7