A systematic review of mentoring nursing students in clinical practice

Department of Nursing Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
Journal of Clinical Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.26). 03/2011; 20(19-20):2854-67. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03571.x
Source: PubMed


This systematic review describes mentoring of nursing students in clinical placements.
Mentoring in nursing has been widely investigated, but mentoring among students has remained vague. There is no universal agreement on student mentoring in nursing placements; therefore, mentoring approaches vary. A unified description of student mentoring is needed to ensure the quality of placement learning in nursing organisations.
Systematic review.
The data were collected from nursing research articles over 20 years (1986-2006). The articles (n = 23) were analysed using inductive content analysis.
Mentoring of nursing students in clinical placements was described according to two themes: (1) facilitating nursing students' learning by creating supportive learning environments and enabling students' individual learning processes, (2) strengthening students' professionalism by empowering the development of their professional attributes and identities and enhancing attainment of students' professional competence in nursing.
This description of student mentoring in nursing clinical placements integrates environmental, collegial, pedagogical and clinical attributes. To ensure effective student mentoring, an individual mutual relationship is important, but also essential is organisation and management to provide adequate resources and systematic preparation for mentors.
The description of student mentoring needs to be systematically reviewed to reflect changes in nursing and education and compared within related concepts to achieve and maintain a workable description. A clear and systematic strategy for student mentoring in nursing organisations could be one opportunity to enhance recruitment of nursing students to the workforce.
A unified description of student mentoring will help improve the quality of placement learning opportunities and support for students, also for exchange students. A clear description of student mentoring enables the development of systematic provisions for mentoring of nursing students in placements and adequate mentor preparation programmes for nurses.

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Available from: Hannele Turunen, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "A spectrum of differing models and definitions of student supervision has evolved with a variety of terms used, sometimes interchangeably, including 'supervising', 'mentoring', 'facilitating' and 'preceptoring'. As examples, mentoring utilizes clinically based nurses—the nurse mentor, with student supervision part of the nurse's standard role (Jokelainen et al., 2011). Alternatively in the clinical facilitator models, registered nurses (RNs) are employed by the higher education institution (HEI) to supervise students, typically in a 1:8 ratio and over several wards (Courtney-Pratt et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Approaches to clinical education are highly diverse and becoming increasingly complex to sustain in complex milieu OBJECTIVE: To identify the influences and challenges of providing nurse clinical education in the undergraduate setting and to illustrate emerging solutions. A discursive exploration into the broad and varied body of evidence including peer reviewed and grey literature. Internationally, enabling undergraduate clinical learning opportunities faces a range of challenges. These can be illustrated under two broad themes: (1) legacies from the past and the inherent features of nurse education and (2) challenges of the present, including, population changes, workforce changes, and the disconnection between the health and education sectors. Responses to these challenges are triggering the emergence of novel approaches, such as collaborative models. Ongoing challenges in providing accessible, effective and quality clinical learning experiences are apparent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Nurse education today 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2015.07.006 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Bailey and Tuohy (2009) emphasize that, for the learning process to be successful, students need support from teachers, relevant skills, prior experimental learning and required theoretical knowledge, among other things. From a systematic review, Jokelainen et al. (2011a) sought a unified description of student mentoring. Their review identified characteristics of clinical mentoring such as creating a supporting learning environment , enabling students' individual learning processes, strengthening students' professionalism, helping them develop their professional identities and improving nursing students' professional competence. "
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    ABSTRACT: Providing adequate training for mentors, fostering a positive mentorship culture and establishing the necessary operational procedures for ensuring mentorship quality are the keys to effective clinical mentoring of nursing students. The purpose of the research was to explain different dimensions of clinical mentors' professional development and their capability of developing ethical values in nursing students. A non-experimental quantitative research design was employed. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to the population of clinical mentors (N=143). The total number of questions was 36. Descriptive statistics were used, and bivariate analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were performed. The professional development of clinical nurse mentors was explained (R(2)=0.256) by career advancement (p=0.000), research and learning (p=0.024) and having a career development plan (p=0.043). Increased professional self-confidence (R(2)=0.188) was explained by career advancement (p=0.000) and the time engaged in record keeping (p=0.028). Responsibility for the development of ethical values in nursing students (R(2)=0.145) was explained by the respondents' level of education (p=0.020) and research and learning (p=0.024). Applying ethical principles and norms into practice (R(2)=0.212) was explained by self-assessed knowledge in ethics (p=0.037) and research and learning (p=0.044). Clinical nurse mentors tended to lack a career development plan, had low work time spent on research and insufficiently participated in education and training activities, which turned out to be significant explanatory factors of their professional development and their capability of developing ethical values in nursing students. The research showed that nursing and higher education managers often failed to assume responsibility for the professional development of clinical nurse mentors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Nurse Education Today 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2015.04.003 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Although the benefits of peer mentoring for student nurses are largely positive, effective peer mentorship requires careful matching of mentor to mentee, management of both mentors and mentees expectations, adequate preparation of mentees to be mentored, and strategies developed for communication barriers and potential conflicts that may emerge as relationships develop (Gilmour et al., 2007). Hence, evidence around the multifaceted nature of mentorship (Jokelainen et al., 2011), further confirms that peer mentoring is a similarly complex process that needs to be underpinned by purposeful planning and continual support (Gilmour et al., 2007; Goldsmith et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mentorship is an essential part of the registered nurse's role, yet few opportunities exist for student nurses to mentor others during pre-registration programmes. This paper reports student nurses' experiences of mentoring school pupils during a pre-nursing scholarship. Focus groups were conducted with fifteen final year student nurses (14 female, 1 male) in two university campuses in Scotland. Discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and data analysed thematically. Three interconnected themes emerged: 1) stepping up; 2) stepping back; 3) stepping forward. 'Stepping up' was a process through which student nurses rapidly assumed responsibility for mentoring pupils, facilitated through the attitudes and actions of students' mentors and students' control over pupils' practice experiences. 'Stepping back' encapsulated attitudes and behaviours that enabled student nurses to mentor pupils that involved considerable judgement around how unfolding events in practice could provide learning and development opportunities, and emotional acuity to support pupils through, sometimes challenging, practice situations. 'Stepping forward' described how students' mentoring experience allowed them to appraise and affirm nursing knowledge and skills, and gain greater appreciation of the reality and complexity of mentorship in clinical practice. Peer mentoring may prepare student nurses for future mentoring roles and aid their transition into clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Nurse Education in Practice 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nepr.2015.03.005
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