Pioglitazone for Diabetes Prevention in Impaired Glucose Tolerance
ABSTRACT Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease and conversion to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interventions that may prevent or delay such occurrences are of great clinical importance.
We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to examine whether pioglitazone can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults with impaired glucose tolerance. A total of 602 patients were randomly assigned to receive pioglitazone or placebo. The median follow-up period was 2.4 years. Fasting glucose was measured quarterly, and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed annually. Conversion to diabetes was confirmed on the basis of the results of repeat testing.
Annual incidence rates for type 2 diabetes mellitus were 2.1% in the pioglitazone group and 7.6% in the placebo group, and the hazard ratio for conversion to diabetes in the pioglitazone group was 0.28 (95% confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.49; P<0.001). Conversion to normal glucose tolerance occurred in 48% of the patients in the pioglitazone group and 28% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001). Treatment with pioglitazone as compared with placebo was associated with significantly reduced levels of fasting glucose (a decrease of 11.7 mg per deciliter vs. 8.1 mg per deciliter [0.7 mmol per liter vs. 0.5 mmol per liter], P<0.001), 2-hour glucose (a decrease of 30.5 mg per deciliter vs. 15.6 mg per deciliter [1.6 mmol per liter vs. 0.9 mmol per liter], P<0.001), and HbA(1c) (a decrease of 0.04 percentage points vs. an increase of 0.20 percentage points, P<0.001). Pioglitazone therapy was also associated with a decrease in diastolic blood pressure (by 2.0 mm Hg vs. 0.0 mm Hg, P=0.03), a reduced rate of carotid intima-media thickening (31.5%, P=0.047), and a greater increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 7.35 mg per deciliter vs. 4.5 mg per deciliter [0.4 mmol per liter vs. 0.3 mmol per liter], P=0.008). Weight gain was greater with pioglitazone than with placebo (3.9 kg vs. 0.77 kg, P<0.001), and edema was more frequent (12.9% vs. 6.4%, P=0.007).
As compared with placebo, pioglitazone reduced the risk of conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes mellitus by 72% but was associated with significant weight gain and edema. (Funded by Takeda Pharmaceuticals and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00220961.).
- SourceAvailable from: Fawaz Haj[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is a need to identify strategies for type 2 diabetes prevention. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of pioglitazone and alogliptin alone and in combination to prevent type 2 diabetes onset in UCD-T2DM rats, a model of polygenic obese type 2 diabetes. At 2 months of age, rats were divided into four groups: control, alogliptin (20 mg/kg per day), pioglitazone (2.5 mg/kg per day), and alogliptin+pioglitazone. Non-fasting blood glucose was measured weekly to determine diabetes onset. Pioglitazone alone and in combination with alogliptin lead to a 5-month delay in diabetes onset despite promoting increased food intake and body weight (BW). Alogliptin alone did not delay diabetes onset or affect food intake or BW relative to controls. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations were lower and adiponectin concentrations were threefold higher in groups treated with pioglitazone. All treatment groups demonstrated improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test with an additive improvement observed with alogliptin+pioglitazone. Islet histology revealed an improvement of islet morphology in all treatment groups compared with control. Pioglitazone treatment also resulted in increased expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue, with mild elevations observed in animals treated with alogliptin alone. Pioglitazone markedly delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats through improvements of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, islet function, and markers of adipose mitochondrial biogenesis; however, addition of alogliptin at a dose of 20 mg/kg per day to pioglitazone treatment does not enhance the prevention/delay of diabetes onset.Journal of Endocrinology 03/2014; 221(1):133-44. DOI:10.1530/JOE-13-0601
- International journal of cardiology 02/2012; 156(2):215-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.01.058
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is being more incurable due to its complex patho-physiology and failure of conventional anti-diabetic agents to restore the normal architecture and morphology of pancreatic islets and some potential side effects and weight gain. Many agents of plant origin have been used as anti-diabetic agents since ancient time. Among them Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) is being more popular day by day due to its potential and broad spectrum effects on many diseases but unfortunately, no sufficient scientific data is available. A comprehensive literature (in English only) search was conducted using electronic databases: Medline (1966 to 2010) and EMBASE (1980 to 2010). For a simple search, initially the search terms used were “anti-diabetic agent,” and “N. sativa,” for each search term separately, and then an advanced search was made by combining all search fields in abstract, key words, or title. Recently, a lot of work has been done for the evaluation of anti-diabetic (against type-II diabetes) effect of N. sativa, significant results have been achieved. However, further studies are required to investigate the anti-diabetic (against type-II diabetes) of N. sativa at molecular levels.