Pioglitazone for Diabetes Prevention in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

Texas Diabetes Institute and University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 03/2011; 364(12):1104-15. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1010949
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease and conversion to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interventions that may prevent or delay such occurrences are of great clinical importance.
We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to examine whether pioglitazone can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults with impaired glucose tolerance. A total of 602 patients were randomly assigned to receive pioglitazone or placebo. The median follow-up period was 2.4 years. Fasting glucose was measured quarterly, and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed annually. Conversion to diabetes was confirmed on the basis of the results of repeat testing.
Annual incidence rates for type 2 diabetes mellitus were 2.1% in the pioglitazone group and 7.6% in the placebo group, and the hazard ratio for conversion to diabetes in the pioglitazone group was 0.28 (95% confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.49; P<0.001). Conversion to normal glucose tolerance occurred in 48% of the patients in the pioglitazone group and 28% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001). Treatment with pioglitazone as compared with placebo was associated with significantly reduced levels of fasting glucose (a decrease of 11.7 mg per deciliter vs. 8.1 mg per deciliter [0.7 mmol per liter vs. 0.5 mmol per liter], P<0.001), 2-hour glucose (a decrease of 30.5 mg per deciliter vs. 15.6 mg per deciliter [1.6 mmol per liter vs. 0.9 mmol per liter], P<0.001), and HbA(1c) (a decrease of 0.04 percentage points vs. an increase of 0.20 percentage points, P<0.001). Pioglitazone therapy was also associated with a decrease in diastolic blood pressure (by 2.0 mm Hg vs. 0.0 mm Hg, P=0.03), a reduced rate of carotid intima-media thickening (31.5%, P=0.047), and a greater increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 7.35 mg per deciliter vs. 4.5 mg per deciliter [0.4 mmol per liter vs. 0.3 mmol per liter], P=0.008). Weight gain was greater with pioglitazone than with placebo (3.9 kg vs. 0.77 kg, P<0.001), and edema was more frequent (12.9% vs. 6.4%, P=0.007).
As compared with placebo, pioglitazone reduced the risk of conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes mellitus by 72% but was associated with significant weight gain and edema. (Funded by Takeda Pharmaceuticals and others; number, NCT00220961.).

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    • "Using bone marrow transplantation from angiotensin II receptor 1a (AT1a) deficient animals, we also showed that deletion of macrophage AT1a lessens uninephrectomy (UNx)-induced acceleration of atherosclerosis and alters macrophage phenotype distribution patterns in the lesions [12]. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g (PPARg) is a member of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor family with critical functions in energy balance and prominent atheroprotective effects [13] [14]. Interestingly, PPARg has been shown to have a reciprocal relationship with RAS [15] [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) amplifies atherosclerosis, which involves renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulation of macrophages. RAS influences peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a modulator of atherogenic functions of macrophages, however, little is known about its effects in CKD. We examined the impact of combined therapy with a PPARγ agonist and angiotensin receptor blocker on atherogenesis in a murine uninephrectomy model. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice underwent uninephrectomy (UNx) and treatment with pioglitazone (UNx + Pio), losartan (UNx + Los), or both (UNx + Pio/Los) for 10 weeks. Extent and characteristics of atherosclerotic lesions and macrophage phenotypes were assessed; RAW264.7 and primary peritoneal mouse cells were used to examine pioglitazone and losartan effects on macrophage phenotype and inflammatory response. UNx significantly increased atherosclerosis. Pioglitazone and losartan each significantly reduced the atherosclerotic burden by 29.6% and 33.5%, respectively; although the benefit was dramatically augmented by combination treatment which lessened atherosclerosis by 55.7%. Assessment of plaques revealed significantly greater macrophage area in UNx + Pio/Los (80.7 ± 11.4% vs. 50.3 ± 4.2% in UNx + Pio and 57.2 ± 6.5% in UNx + Los) with more apoptotic cells. The expanded macrophage-rich lesions of UNx + Pio/Los had more alternatively activated, Ym-1 and arginine 1-positive M2 phenotypes (Ym-1: 33.6 ± 8.2%, p < 0.05 vs. 12.0 ± 1.1% in UNx; arginase 1: 27.8 ± 0.9%, p < 0.05 vs. 11.8 ± 1.3% in UNx). In vitro, pioglitazone alone and together with losartan was more effective than losartan alone in dampening lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production, suppressing M1 phenotypic change while enhancing M2 phenotypic change. Combination of pioglitazone and losartan is more effective in reducing renal injury-induced atherosclerosis than either treatment alone. This benefit reflects mitigation in macrophage cytokine production, enhanced apoptosis, and a shift toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 07/2015; 242(1):56-64. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.06.055 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "Pioglitazone is highly effective oral medication for DM 2 and is also reported to control the blood sugar. It enhances insulin function, and has variable effects on serum triglyceride levels in patients with DM 2 [29]. Present study confirms that mice fed on high fat diet maintained fasting blood sugar in normal range till the mid of the late phase of obesity where blood sugar values started to increase and attained highest level during second half of late phase. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Obesity is a metabolic disorder that can lead to high blood pressure, increased blood cholesterol and triglycerides, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. The aim was to study the effects of pioglitazone mediated sensitization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) on the relationship of Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector C (CIDEC) with obesity related changes in mice. Methods Sixty C57B/L6 mice weighing 10–12g at 3 weeks of age were randomly divided into 3 groups. Mice in Group 1 were fed on normal diet (ND) while Group 2 mice were given high fat diet (HFD), and Group 3 mice were given high fat diet and treated with Pioglitazone (HFD+P). Body weight, length and level of blood sugar were measured weekly. Quantitative real-time PCR, fluorescence microscopy, and ELISA were performed to analyze the expression of CIDEC and PPAR-γ in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Results Body weight and length of mice increased gradually with time in all groups. Blood sugar in HFD mice started to increase significantly from the mid of late phase of obesity while pioglitazone attenuated blood sugar level in HFD+P mice. The mRNA expressions and protein levels of PPAR-γ and CIDEC genes started to increase in HFD mice as compared to ND mice and decreased gradually during the late phase of obesity in VAT. Pioglitazone enhanced the expression of PPAR-γ and CIDEC genes in HFD+P mice even during the late phase of obesity. Conclusion It is insinuated that VAT is associated with late phase obesity CIDEC decrease and insulin resistance, while pioglitazone enhances CIDEC through activation of PPAR-γ, increases its expression, and decreases lipolysis, hence preventing an increase of blood sugar in mice exposed to HFD.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106992. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106992 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "PPARγ is the master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, and enhances the numbers of insulin-sensitive small adipocytes [4], [5]. Its ligands, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, are highly effective in treating insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [6]–[8]. Unfortunately, TZDs are associated with serious safety issues, including weight gain, edema, increased incidence of heart attack, and bone loss [9]–[12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Its ligand rosiglitazone has anti-diabetic effect but is frequently accompanied with some severe unwanted effects. The aim of the current study was to compare the anti-diabetic effect of CMHX008, a novel thiazolidinedione-derivative, with rosiglitazone. A luciferase assay was used to evaluate in vitro PPARγ activation. 3T3-L1 cells were used to examine adipocyte differentiation. High fat diet (HFD) mice were used to examine in vivo insulin sensitivity. The mRNA levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Serum biochemical and hormonal variables were assessed using a clinical chemistry analyser. CMHX008 displayed a moderate PPARγ agonist activity, and promoted 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation with lower activity than rosiglitazone. CMHX008 regulated the expression of PPARγ target genes in a different manner from rosiglitazone. CMHX008 increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin with the similar efficacy as rosiglitazone, but only 25% as potent as rosiglitazone for the induction of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein. Treatment of CMHX008 and rosiglitazone protected mice from high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and inflammation. CMHX008 reduced the mRNA expression of M1 macrophage markers, and significantly increased the expressions of M2 markers. In conclusion, CMHX008 shared the comparable insulin-sensitizing effects as rosiglitazone with lower adipogenic capacity and might potentially be developed into an effective agent for the treatment of diabetes and metabolic disorders.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102102. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102102 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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