Elevated serum ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 is associated with abnormal blood-brain barrier function after traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT Serum S100B elevations accurately reflect blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. Because S100B is also present in peripheral tissues, release of this protein may not be specific to central nervous system (CNS) injury. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1), and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H) are found exclusively in neurons, but their relationship to BBB dysfunction has not been determined. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of serum UCHL1 and pNF-H as measures of BBB integrity after traumatic brain injury (TBI), to and compare them to S100B. We performed a prospective study of 16 patients with moderate to severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤12) and 6 patients with non-traumatic headache who had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected by ventriculostomy or lumbar puncture (LP). Serum and CSF were collected at the time of LP for headache patients and at 12, 24, and 48 h after injury for TBI patients. BBB function was determined by calculating albumin quotients (Q(A)), where Q(A)=[albumin(CSF)]/[albumin(serum)]. S100B, UCHL1, and pNF-H were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pearson's correlation coefficient and area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve were used to determine relationships between serum markers and Q(A). At 12 hours after TBI, a significant relationship was found between Q(A) and serum UCHL1 concentrations (AUC=0.76; 95% CI 0.55,1.00), and between Q(A) and serum S100B concentrations (AUC=0.794; 95% CI 0.57,1.02). There was no significant relationship found between these markers and Q(A) at other time points, or between pNF-H and Q(A) at any time point. We conclude that serum concentrations of UCHL1 are associated with abnormal BBB status 12 h after moderate to severe TBI. This relationship is similar to that observed between serum S100B and Q(A,) despite the fact that S100B may be released from peripheral tissues after multi-trauma. We conclude that peripheral release of S100B after multi-trauma is probably negligible and that UCHL1 may have some utility to monitor BBB disruption following TBI.
Article: Ubiquitin Carboxy-Terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is increased in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients after epileptic seizure.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that seizures can cause molecular and cellular responses resulting in neuronal damage. At present, there are no valid tests for assessing organic damage to the brain associated with seizure. The aim of this study was to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma concentrations of Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), a sensitive indicator of acute injury to brain neurons, in patients with tonic--clonic or partial secondarily generalized seizures due to various etiologies. METHODS: CSF and plasma concentrations of UCH-L1 were assessed in 52 patients within 48 hours after epileptic seizure and in 19 controls using ELISA assays. RESULTS: CSF obtained within 48 hours after seizure or status epilepticus (SE) presented significantly higher levels of UCH-L1 compared to controls (p = 0.008). Plasma UCH-L1 concentrations were negatively correlated with time to sample withdrawal. An analysis conducted using only the first 12 hours post-seizure revealed significant differences between concentrations of UCH-L1 in plasma and controls (p = 0.025). CSF and plasma concentrations were strongly correlated with age in patients with seizure, but not in control patients. Plasma UCH-L1 levels were also significantly higher in patients after recurrent seizures (n = 4) than in those after one or two seizures (p = 0.013 and p = 0.024, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that determining levels of neuronal proteins may provide valuable information on the assessment of brain damage following seizure. These data might allow clinicians to make more accurate therapeutic decisions, to identify patients at risk of progression and, ultimately, to provide new opportunities for monitoring therapy and targeted therapeutic interventions.BMC Neurology 08/2012; 12(1):85. · 2.17 Impact Factor
Article: Neuroprotective effect of preoperatively induced mild hypothermia as determined by biomarkers and histopathological estimation in a rat subdural hematoma decompression model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Object In patients who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), hypothermia therapy has not shown efficacy in multicenter clinical trials. Armed with the post hoc data from the latest clinical trial (National Acute Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia II), the authors hypothesized that hypothermia may be beneficial in an acute subdural hematoma (SDH) rat model by blunting the effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury. The major aim of this study was to test the efficacy of temperature management in reducing brain damage after acute SDH. Methods The rats were induced with acute SDH and placed into 1 of 4 groups: 1) normothermia group (37°C); 2) early hypothermia group, head and body temperature reduced to 33°C 30 minutes prior to craniotomy; 3) late hypothermia group, temperature lowered to 33°C 30 minutes after decompression; and 4) sham group, no acute SDH (only craniotomy with normothermia). To assess for neuronal and glial cell damage, the authors analyzed microdialysate concentrations of GFAP and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) by using a 100-kD probe. Fluoro-Jade B-positive neurons and injury volume with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were also measured. Results In the early phase of reperfusion (30 minutes, 2.5 hours after decompression), extracellular UCH-L1 in the early hypothermia group was significantly lower than in the normothermia group (early, 4.9 ± 1.0 ng/dl; late, 35.2 ± 12.1 ng/dl; normothermia, 50.20 ± 28.3 ng/dl; sham, 3.1 ± 1.3 ng/dl; early vs normothermia, p < 0.01; sham vs normothermia, p < 0.01, analyzed using ANOVA followed by a post hoc Bonferroni test). In the late phase of reperfusion (> 2.5 hours after decompression), extracellular GFAP in the early hypothermia group was also lower than in the normothermia and late hypothermia groups (early, 5.5 ± 2.9 ng/dl; late, 7.4 ± 3.4 ng/dl; normothermia, 15.3 ± 8.4 ng/dl; sham, 3.3 ± 1.0 ng/dl; normothermia vs sham; p < 0.01). The number of Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the early hypothermia group was significantly smaller than that in the normothermia group (normothermia vs early: 774,588 ± 162,173 vs 180,903 ± 42,212, p < 0.05). Also, the injury area and volume were smaller in the early hypothermia group in which hypothermia was induced before craniotomy and cerebral reperfusion (early, 115.2 ± 15.4 mm(3); late, 344.7 ± 29.1 mm(3); normothermia, 311.2 ± 79.2 mm(3); p < 0.05). Conclusions The data suggest that early, preoperatively induced hypothermia could mediate the reduction of neuronal and glial damage in the reperfusion phase of ischemia/reperfusion brain injury.Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2012; · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The acknowledgement of risks for traumatic brain injury in American football players has prompted studies for sideline concussion diagnosis and testing for neurological deficits. While concussions are recognized etiological factors for a spectrum of neurological sequelae, the consequences of sub-concussive events are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) and the accompanying surge of the astrocytic protein S100B in blood may cause an immune response associated with production of auto-antibodies. We also wished to determine whether these events result in disrupted white matter on diffusion tensor imaging (DT) scans. Players from three college football teams were enrolled (total of 67 volunteers). None of the players experienced a concussion. Blood samples were collected before and after games (n = 57); the number of head hits in all players was monitored by movie review and post-game interviews. S100B serum levels and auto-antibodies against S100B were measured and correlated by direct and reverse immunoassays (n = 15 players; 5 games). A subset of players underwent DTI scans pre- and post-season and after a 6-month interval (n = 10). Cognitive and functional assessments were also performed. After a game, transient BBB damage measured by serum S100B was detected only in players experiencing the greatest number of sub-concussive head hits. Elevated levels of auto-antibodies against S100B were elevated only after repeated sub-concussive events characterized by BBBD. Serum levels of S100B auto-antibodies also predicted persistence of MRI-DTI abnormalities which in turn correlated with cognitive changes. Even in the absence of concussion, football players may experience repeated BBBD and serum surges of the potential auto-antigen S100B. The correlation of serum S100B, auto-antibodies and DTI changes support a link between repeated BBBD and future risk for cognitive changes.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e56805. · 4.09 Impact Factor