First level seismic microzonation map of Chennai city – a GIS approach
ABSTRACT Chennai city is the fourth largest metropolis in India, is the focus of economic, social and cultural development and it is the capital of the State of Tamil Nadu. The city has a multi-dimensional growth in development of its infrastructures and population. The area of Chennai has experienced moderate earthquakes in the historical past. Also the Bureau of Indian Standard upgraded the seismic status of Chennai from Low Seismic Hazard (Zone II) to Moderate Seismic Hazard (Zone III)–(BIS: 1893 (2001)). In this connection, a first level seismic microzonation map of Chennai city has been produced with a GIS platform using the themes, viz, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Shear wave velocity at 3 m, Geology, Ground water fluctuation and bed rock depth. The near potential seismic sources were identified from the remote-sensing study and seismo-tectonic details from published literatures. The peak ground acceleration for these seismic sources were estimated based on the attenuation relationship and the maximum PGA for Chennai is 0.176 g. The groundwater fluctuation of the city varies from 0–4 m below ground level. The depth to bedrock configuration shows trough and ridges in the bedrock topography all over the city. The seismic microzonation analysis involved grid datasets (the discrete datasets from different themes were converted to grids) to compute the final seismic hazard grid through integration and weightage analysis of the source themes. The Chennai city has been classified into three broad zones, viz, High, Moderate and Low Seismic Hazard. The High seismic Hazard concentrated in a few places in the western central part of the city. The moderate hazard areas are oriented in NW-SE direction in the Western part. The southern and eastern part will have low seismic hazard. The result of the study may be used as first-hand information in selecting the appropriate earthquake resistant features in designing the forthcoming new buildings against seismic ground motion of the city.
SourceAvailable from: Emre Özşahin04/2014; 11(1):861-879. DOI:10.14687/ijhs.v11i1.2816
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ABSTRACT: The creation of earthquake hazard maps requires various datasets with selected attenuation relations. Based on the selected attenuation relation, the calculation time varies from half an hour to a couple of days. The length of time needed to create an earthquake hazard map also depends on the resolution of the resulting map. The time gets longer as the resolution of the resulting earthquake hazard map gets higher. The basic form of an attenuation relation requires complex calculation algorithms including geospatial infor-mation related to the region of interest. Nowadays, next-generation attenuation (NGA) models are introduced to generate more realistic earthquake hazard maps. However, the more complex the attenuation relation is, the longer time will be required to create a hazard map. This paper offers a new method to create high-resolution earthquake hazard maps, faster than using traditional attenuation relation methods, by using an analytic hierarchy process of spatial multi-criteria decision analysis and geographic information systems. This method has been generated and tested for the city of Istanbul. The resulting maps are compared with the earthquake hazard maps created for the city of Istanbul by using the NGA model of Boore and Atkinson (in Boore–Atkinson NGA ground motion relations for the geometric mean horizontal component of peak and spectral ground motion parameters (trans: Engineering Co, University of California B). Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center 2007). A second output of this paper is a map of the elements at risk (EaR) for the population and buildings of Istanbul, and the introduction of a new approach of net elements at risk (NEaR).Natural Hazards 02/2014; 73(2):685-709. DOI:10.1007/s11069-014-1099-2 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Following a brief overview of past applications of, and more recent advances on seismic microzonation, the results of a seismic microzonation study for the city of Chania, Greece, are presented. The study was based on V-s vs. depth profiles obtained at 19 sites of the urban area by performing SASW measurements. The spatial distribution of V-s values was utilized in estimating V-s30 values, depth to bedrock and the fundamental ground period variation across the area of the city as well as for conducting 1-D finite element non-linear inelastic site response analyses. The input earthquake excitations employed in the response analyses were based on the results of an available seismic hazard study for the Chania Area. The results of analyses were utilized for establishing the spatial distribution of rock motion amplification, the expected ground motions and spectral values in the area of the city. Contour maps providing values of the expected ground motion in the urban area are given which may become a practical tool in assessing the seismic risk and expected damage in the Chania area. The maps can also be used in the design of new earthquake resistant structures or the seismic retrofitting of existing ones. Finally, the results were utilized to demonstrate the inadequacy of using V-s,V-30 values for classifying the soil conditions in the Chania area.Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 10/2013; 53:145-159. DOI:10.1016/j.soildyn.2013.06.013 · 1.30 Impact Factor