Hip circumference is associated with the risk of premenopausal ER-/PR- breast cancer.
ABSTRACT We evaluated the relationship between hip and waist circumferences (HCs, WCs), waist-to-hip ratio, height, weight and body mass index (BMI) and breast cancer risk according to menopausal status of women and cancer hormone receptor status.
We used data from the French E3N longitudinal prospective cohort.
In the total population of 63 726 women who were analyzed, 1887 breast cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up.
Among postmenopausal women, the risk of ER+/PR+ breast cancer increased with increasing weight, BMI, and both HCs and WCs, although these two associations disappeared after adjustment for BMI. No association was seen with ER-/PR- breast cancers. Among premenopausal women, among the different factors studied, HC only (no association was observed for any of the different factors studied except for HC) was associated with an increased risk of ER+/PR+ breast cancer after adjustment for BMI (hazard ratio (HR)=1.65; (1.04-2.62) when comparing the highest to lowest tertile; P-trend across tertiles=0.03) and of ER-/PR- breast cancer both before and after adjustment for BMI (HR=2.85 (1.33-6.13); P-trend <0.01, and HR=3.13 (1.19-8.27) P-trend =0.02, respectively). In the latter group, the association with HC was observed whatever the WC (HR=2.81 (1.18-6.70) and HR=2.79 (1.16-6.76) in women with high HC/low WC and high HC/high WC, respectively).
The increase in risk of premenopausal breast cancer associated with large HC for both ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- subtypes may provide insight into a specific risk factor for premenopausal breast cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Xavier Pi-Sunyer[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as a practical measure of adipose tissue distribution. Four body sites for WC measurements are commonly used, as follows: immediately below the lowest ribs (WC1), the narrowest waist (WC2), the midpoint between the lowest rib and the iliac crest (WC3), and immediately above the iliac crest (WC4). We sought to compare the magnitude and reliability of WC measured at these 4 sites in males and females. WC was measured at each site 1 time in all subjects [49 males and 62 females, aged 7-83 y, with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 9-43] and 3 times in a subgroup (n = 93) by one experienced observer using a heavy-duty inelastic tape. Body fat was measured in a subgroup (n = 74) with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean values of WC were WC2 < WC1 < WC3 < WC4 (P < 0.01) in females and WC2 < WC1, WC3, and WC4 (P < 0.01) in males. For all 4 sites, measurement reproducibility was high, with intraclass correlation (r) values > 0.99. WC values were significantly correlated with fatness; correlations with trunk fat were higher than correlations with total body fat in both sexes. WC values at the 4 commonly used anatomic sites differ in magnitude depending on sex, are highly reproducible, and are correlated with total body and trunk adiposity in a sex-dependent manner. These observations have implications for the use of WC measurements in clinical practice and patient-oriented research.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2003; 77(2):379-84. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer, but the role of the timing and amount of adult weight change in breast cancer risk is unclear. We prospectively examined the relations of adiposity and adult weight change to breast cancer risk among 99 039 postmenopausal women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Anthropometry was assessed by self-report in 1996. Through 2000, 2111 incident breast cancer cases were ascertained. Current body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BMI at ages 50 and 35 years, and waist-hip ratio were associated with increased breast cancer risk, particularly in women not using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Weight gained between age 18 years and the current age, between ages 18 and 35 years, between ages 35 and 50 years, and between age 50 years and the current age was consistently associated with increased breast cancer risk in MHT nonusers (relative risk [RR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-3.42 for a >/=50-kg weight gain between age 18 years and the current age vs stable weight) but not in current MHT users. Risk associated with adult weight change was stronger in women with later vs earlier age at menarche (RR, 4.20; 95% CI, 2.05-8.64 for >/=15 years vs RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.11-2.06 for 11-12 years; P = .007 for interaction). In MHT nonusers, the associations with current BMI and adult weight change were stronger for advanced disease than for nonadvanced disease (P = .009 [current BMI] and .21 [weight gain] for heterogeneity) and were stronger for hormone receptor-positive than hormone receptor-negative tumors (P < .001 for heterogeneity). Weight gain throughout adulthood is associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in MHT nonusers.Archives of Internal Medicine 10/2007; 167(19):2091-102. · 11.46 Impact Factor
- JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 04/1997; 89(5):396-8. · 14.34 Impact Factor