Application of fluorescent cholangiography to single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc
ABSTRACT Although the use of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is spreading rapidly, this technique has disadvantages. It does not allow for sufficient surgical views to be obtained or for intraoperative radiographic cholangiography to be performed. Fluorescent cholangiography using a preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) may be useful for identifying the biliary tract during both SILC and conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
For seven patients undergoing SILC, 1 ml of ICG (2.5 mg) was administered by intravenous injection before the surgery. The prototype fluorescent imaging system consisted of a xenon light source and a 30° laparoscope (diameter, 10 mm) equipped with a charge-coupled device camera capable of filtering out light with wavelengths shorter than 810 nm. The laparoscope was introduced through an umbilical trocar. Fluorescent cholangiography then was performed by changing the color images to fluorescent images using a foot switch during dissection of the triangle of Calot.
Fluorescent cholangiography identified the confluence between the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct in all seven patients before and throughout the dissection of the triangle of Calot. The interval from the injection of ICG to the first obtained fluorescent cholangiography before dissection of the triangle of Calot ranged from 35 to 75 min.
Fluorescent cholangiography enabled real-time identification of the extrahepatic bile ducts during SILC without necessitating catheterization of the bile duct. Such properties of fluorescent cholangiography are expected to be helpful for ensuring the safety of SILC and expanding the indications for the procedure.
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ABSTRACT: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision surgery (SIS) are less invasive alternatives to traditional laparoscopic techniques. Concerns exist over the safety of these new approaches, and randomized controlled trials have yet to confirm a net benefit. If NOTES and SIS techniques are to become standard practice, then they should be shown to be safe and hold clear benefits to patients. We aim at comparing the available results by using these techniques in a standard laparoscopic operation (cholecystectomy). A systematic review using available databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register) and the published English language medical literature was performed. All the archived articles were cross-referenced. Outcome data obtained from a Cochrane review of laparoscopic cholecystectomy were used as the control group. All the operations performed via a single incision were grouped under SIS, and operations in which a natural orifice (alone or as a hybrid technique) was analyzed, under NOTES group. Mortality and complications were the primary outcome measures. One hundred thirty-five papers including 4703 patients (714 NOTES, 3989 SIS) were selected for analysis. Overall complication rate was 4.2% in the NOTES group versus 4.3% in the SIS group, with a distinct complication profile. No mortality was reported in either group. NOTES procedures had a longer mean operative time than SIS techniques (107 versus 79 minutes). The conversion rate between NOTES and SILS was similar (3.4% versus 3.3%, respectively). No difference in the incidence of complications was observed with the newer techniques. Adequately powered randomized control trials are needed to clarify whether SIS/NOTES cholecystectomy has a similar length of hospital stay to traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The increased occurrence of specific types of complications and their use in acute pathology needs further investigation to warrant further use in routine surgical practice.Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques 12/2011; 22(1):1-14. DOI:10.1089/lap.2011.0341 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Safe cholecystectomy requires confident identification of extrahepatic biliary anatomy. This is the first report of the use of fluorescein and ultraviolet light to improve visualization of biliary topography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Five patients who had symptomatic gallstones underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with intraoperative intravenous fluorescein injection. Ultraviolet A from an LED light source was used to induce fluorescence of bile. It was delivered by a device that was designed and built by the authors. Results. Within 4 to 5 minutes the bile ducts were shining with green fluorescence and were easily differentiated from the surrounding tissues. In all cases, identification of the extrahepatic biliary anatomy by the fluorescence technique preceded its identification with conventional white light. Fluorescence remained for the whole duration of operation that extended for 42 to 77 minutes. Conclusions. At laparoscopic cholecystectomy, intravenous fluorescein injection and ultraviolet A excitation induce bile ducts to fluoresce. The technique allows better and earlier real-time visualization of biliary anatomy than conventional white light. The technique is simple and inexpensive. It serves as an additional tool that would improve safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.Surgical Innovation 04/2012; 20(2). DOI:10.1177/1553350612442794 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Improved imaging methods and surgical techniques have created a new era in hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery. Despite these developments, visual inspection, palpation, and intraoperative ultrasound remain the most utilized tools during surgery today. This is problematic, though, especially in laparoscopic HPB surgery, where palpation is not possible. Optical imaging using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence can be used for the real-time assessment of both anatomy (e.g., sensitive detection and demarcation of tumours and vital structures) and function (e.g., assessment of luminal flow and tissue perfusion) during both open and minimally invasive surgeries. Methods This article reviews the published literature related to preclinical development and clinical applications of NIR fluorescence imaging during HPB surgery. Results NIR fluorescence imaging combines the use of otherwise invisible NIR fluorescent contrast agents and specially designed camera systems, which are capable of detecting these contrast agents during surgery. Unlike visible light, NIR fluorescent light can penetrate several millimetres through blood and living tissue, thus providing improved detectability. Applications of this technique during HPB surgery include tumour imaging in liver and pancreas, and real-time imaging of the biliary tree. Conclusions NIR fluorescence imaging is a promising new technique that may someday improve surgical accuracy and lower complications.Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 07/2012; 19(6). DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0534-6 · 2.99 Impact Factor