Application of fluorescent cholangiography to single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy
ABSTRACT Although the use of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is spreading rapidly, this technique has disadvantages. It does not allow for sufficient surgical views to be obtained or for intraoperative radiographic cholangiography to be performed. Fluorescent cholangiography using a preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) may be useful for identifying the biliary tract during both SILC and conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
For seven patients undergoing SILC, 1 ml of ICG (2.5 mg) was administered by intravenous injection before the surgery. The prototype fluorescent imaging system consisted of a xenon light source and a 30° laparoscope (diameter, 10 mm) equipped with a charge-coupled device camera capable of filtering out light with wavelengths shorter than 810 nm. The laparoscope was introduced through an umbilical trocar. Fluorescent cholangiography then was performed by changing the color images to fluorescent images using a foot switch during dissection of the triangle of Calot.
Fluorescent cholangiography identified the confluence between the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct in all seven patients before and throughout the dissection of the triangle of Calot. The interval from the injection of ICG to the first obtained fluorescent cholangiography before dissection of the triangle of Calot ranged from 35 to 75 min.
Fluorescent cholangiography enabled real-time identification of the extrahepatic bile ducts during SILC without necessitating catheterization of the bile duct. Such properties of fluorescent cholangiography are expected to be helpful for ensuring the safety of SILC and expanding the indications for the procedure.
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ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is currently the gold standard treatment for gallstone disease. Bile duct injury is a rare and severe complication of this procedure, with a reported incidence of 0.4% to 0.8% and is mostly a result of misperception and misinterpretation of the biliary anatomy. Robotic cholecystectomy has proven to be a safe and feasible approach. One of the latest innovations in minimally invasive technology is fluorescent imaging using indocyanine green (ICG). The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of ICG and the Da Vinci Fluorescence Imaging Vision System in real-time visualization of the biliary anatomy. A total of 184 robotic cholecystectomies with ICG fluorescence cholangiography were performed between July 2011 and February 2013. All patients received a dose of 2.5 mg of ICG 45 minutes prior to the beginning of the surgical procedure. The procedures were multiport or single port depending on the case. No conversions to open or laparoscopic surgery occurred in this series. The overall postoperative complication rate was 3.2%. No biliary injuries occurred. ICG fluorescence allowed visualization of at least 1 biliary structure in 99% of cases. The cystic duct, the common bile duct, and the common hepatic duct were successfully visualized with ICG in 97.8%, 96.1%, and 94% of cases, respectively. ICG fluorescent cholangiography during robotic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective procedure that helps real-time visualization of the biliary tree anatomy.Surgical Innovation 03/2014; 21(6). DOI:10.1177/1553350614524839 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, using contrast agents with fluorescent characteristics in the near-infrared (NIR: 700–900 nm) window, is considered to possess great potential for clinical practice in the future of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), given its capacity for intraoperative, real-time anatomical navigation, and identification. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning the current and potential future applications of fluorescence imaging in supporting anatomical guidance during MIS, and thereby guiding future research. Methods A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed and Embase databases. All identified articles were screened and checked for eligibility by two authors. In addition, literature was sought by screening references of eligible articles. Results After administration of a fluorescent dye (e.g., indocyanine green), NIRF imaging can be helpful to improve the visualization of vital anatomical structures during MIS. Extra-hepatic bile ducts, arteries, ureters, sentinel lymph nodes, and lymph vessels have successfully been identified using NIRF imaging. A uniform approach regarding timing and route of dye administration has not yet been established. Optimization of both imaging systems and fluorescent dyes is needed to improve current shortcomings. New preclinical dyes are considered for optimization of NIRF imaging. Conclusion Future implementation of new intraoperative optical methods, such as NIRF, could significantly contribute to intraoperative anatomy navigation and facilitate critical decision-making in MIS. Further research (i.e., large multi-center randomized controlled trials) is needed to establish the true value of this innovative optical imaging technique in standard clinical practice.World Journal of Surgery 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00268-014-2911-6 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with increased incidences of bile duct injury. The primary cause appears to be misidentification of the biliary anatomy. Routine intra-operative cholangiography has been recommended to reduce accidental duct injury, although in practice it is more often reserved for selected cases. There has been interest in the use of fluorescent agents excreted via the biliary system to enable real-time intra-operative imaging, to aid the laparoscopic surgeon in correctly interpreting the anatomy. The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the ability of fluorescent cholangiography to identify important biliary anatomy intra-operatively. Secondary aims are to investigate its ability to detect important intra-operative pathology such as bile leaks, identify potential alternative fluorophores, and evaluate the evidence regarding patient outcomes.Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research 01/2014; 8:5. DOI:10.1186/s13022-014-0005-7